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# VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  06 Aug 2012, 02:01
Thanks Shraddha. This is strange, I never got an email response to this in my inbox, stating that you have responded. I generally to came back to review something on this page and I found that you have replied. Thanks. Makes me wonder, if I missed other updates.

GMAT club moderators, any specific reason I did not get an email update that the some changes were made to this page, given that I had my comment on this question?
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  23 Aug 2012, 23:59

Can you please provide link to the part-3 of the verb-ing modifiers.
I search but no success

Thanks!
Rah
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MGMAT 1 670 (48,33) on 04/9/11
MGMAT 2 670 (47,34) on 07/9/11
MGMAT 3 680 (47,35) on 18/9/11
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CR notes
http://gmatclub.com/forum/massive-collection-of-verbal-questions-sc-rc-and-cr-106195.html#p832142
http://gmatclub.com/forum/1001-ds-questions-file-106193.html#p832133
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-critical-reasoning-collection-106783.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html?hilit=chineseburned

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  24 Aug 2012, 06:31
Expert's post
Hi there,
Well, we don't have Part 3 of this series. The two parts cover the majority of this topic. For more on the usage of Verb-ing Modifiers, you can log on to e-gmat.com, register for free and review the concept named Modifiers - Verb-ing in the Level 1 preview level concepts. Registration is free and you can learn a few more important concepts listed in our preview level concepts.

Let us know if you need any help.
Thanks
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  24 Aug 2012, 20:05
egmat wrote:
Hi there,
Well, we don't have Part 3 of this series. The two parts cover the majority of this topic. For more on the usage of Verb-ing Modifiers, you can log on to e-gmat.com, register for free and review the concept named Modifiers - Verb-ing in the Level 1 preview level concepts. Registration is free and you can learn a few more important concepts listed in our preview level concepts.

Let us know if you need any help.
Thanks

As per the initial 3 examples you took, I thought that one form is left for discussion:

verb+ing, <subject>

Although I noticed that this form is covered partly in one of the articles on veb+ed vs verb+ing...Thanks a lot Shraddha for such wonderful articles.!
_________________

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MGMAT 6 650 (51,31) on 31/8/11
MGMAT 1 670 (48,33) on 04/9/11
MGMAT 2 670 (47,34) on 07/9/11
MGMAT 3 680 (47,35) on 18/9/11
GMAT Prep1 680 ( 50, 31) on 10/11/11

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
CR notes
http://gmatclub.com/forum/massive-collection-of-verbal-questions-sc-rc-and-cr-106195.html#p832142
http://gmatclub.com/forum/1001-ds-questions-file-106193.html#p832133
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-critical-reasoning-collection-106783.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html?hilit=chineseburned

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  30 Sep 2012, 10:25

"Mr. Romney enters the first of three debates trailing President Barack Obama in most polls, and with voters in large numbers saying they view the Republican nominee in a negative light."

Please clarify the function of the above "V-ing". Should it work as a noun modifier of the noun "voters"? and why do they use that instead of a clause such as "and with voters ... said..."?

thank you!
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  27 Oct 2012, 02:38
Hi E-gmat,

What do you think about the verb-ing modifier "gathering". It seems it is adverbial and modifying the clause -who first sailed around the Earth-. But as per the stated rule, "gathering" cannot act as adverbial as it is not preceded by comma.

Like the great navigators who first sailed around the Earth gathering information about its size and the curvature of its surface, astronomers have made new observations that show with startling directness the large-scale geometry of the universe.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  09 Dec 2012, 04:43
Expert's post
egmat wrote:
imhimanshu wrote:

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

I know, that the comma + ing should modify the previous clause. Here, we don't have a clause before comma+ing modifier, hence the usage is incorrect, however OG says that the wording suggests that the intricate structure has miniature eyes. Could you please help me out. Also, does comma+ with modifier modifies closest noun or it can modify clause as well.

Thanks
Himanshu

Hi Himanshu,

• The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

It is true that comma + verb-ing modifies the preceding clause. But that happens when comma + verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause. There may be instances where you will see comma + verb-ing modifier is placed after the subject. In that case, the comma + verb-ing modifier modifies the subject.

Grammatically, in this OG 13#7 problem, “having” is modifying the subject “The intricate structure of the compound eye” after which it has been placed. However, this leads to illogical meaning. Now the sentence means that the intricate structure has hundreds of miniature eyes. Hence, we certainly have modifier error here.

Now, study the following OG 13#25 problem,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

In this sentence, usage of “having” is absolutely correct. It is placed after the subject “neuroscientists” and hence correctly modifies that entity. The meaning here is that neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge… The modification conveys the logical meaning.

Now let’s talk about the comma + with modifiers. So here we are talking about prepositional phrases. “with” modifiers are very versatile modifiers. They can modify either the preceding clause or the preceding nouns. What they modify actually depends on the context of the sentence and the wording of the modifier itself.

• Bihar is India's poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111. In this sentence, with modifier actually modifies the preceding noun. With modifier in this sentence has the following sense. Notice how “which has” can be understood to replace “with”. India’s poorest state, which has an annual per capita income of$111

However, this modifier can be understood to modify the subject of the clause as well because of the nature of the verb - is. This is a linking verb, which establishes the following relationship:
Bihar = India’s poorest state.

Now lets consider a scenario in which “with” modifier modifies the preceding clause. This is a GMATPrep Question. You can find the detailed solution of this question at this link.

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

The comma +with modifier above modifies the preceding clause. In essence this sentence can be written as two separate sentences:

1. Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches.
2. Their arms and legs are hung like socks on a clothesline.

So sentence 2 has been converted into with modifier. This modifier extends the thought of the preceding clause by providing a detail supporting it.

Now if the above sounds very complicated, then do not worry about it. As long as you know that these modifiers are versatile and hence can modify preceding clause and preceding nouns, you would be fine. Let the meaning of the sentence guide you. You should understand the meaning of the sentence and ensure that one of these roles fit well.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

eGMAT,
Great explanation above....
For the 'compound insect eye' qs. I think OA :E

Please let me know whether I got it right.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  10 Dec 2012, 13:12
Expert's post
debayan222 wrote:
For the 'compound insect eye' qs. I think OA :E

Please let me know whether I got it right.

Hi Debayan,

Yes, you are absolutely correct. The correct naswer is indeed choice E. Why don't you share your analysis with all of us?

Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  12 Dec 2012, 06:58
Expert's post
egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
For the 'compound insect eye' qs. I think OA :E

Please let me know whether I got it right.

Hi Debayan,

Yes, you are absolutely correct. The correct naswer is indeed choice E. Why don't you share your analysis with all of us?

Thanks.

If we get the mood/meaning and structure of the sentence,we can see that main subject here is 'The intricate structure of the compound insect eye' (sing.) and logic hovers around it consequently.
Now this subject is separated from the verb 'help' by a phrase 'having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia' through comma(,).Hence, as per SVA verb should agree with singular subject, i.e. "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye helps...". Thus, can eliminate A,D.

Now,it's evidently follows that sing. subject here goes with 'it' NOT with 'they'.So, eliminate B,C.
Thus we're left with E only and indeed it's correct logically and grammatically.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  12 Dec 2012, 14:03
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Hi debayan,

Good analysis there. However, I have one question for you. What is the antecedent of pronoun "it" in choice A and E? Looking forward to your reply.

Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  13 Dec 2012, 08:25
Expert's post
egmat wrote:
Hi debayan,

Good analysis there. However, I have one question for you. What is the antecedent of pronoun "it" in choice A and E? Looking forward to your reply.

Thanks.

In both the case, antecedent of pronoun "it" is The intricate structure of the compound insect eye... It's the structure of the insect eye that drives the game here I believe.

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  13 Dec 2012, 19:31
Expert's post
egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
In both the case, antecedent of pronoun "it" is The intricate structure of the compound insect eye... It's the structure of the insect eye that drives the game here I believe.

Hi debayan,

I kind of got it that you think that “it” refers to “The intricate structure of the compound insect eye”. So per your answer, the sentence says that the intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that “the structure” evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

Now, tell me does that make sense? Can a structure evolve? That to independently of the vertebrate eye?

So, pronoun “it” does not refer to “the structure”. This “it” refers to “the compound insect eye”. And the scientists now have the reason to explain why they assume that the compound insect eye evolved independently of the vertebrate eye. This is the logical meaning of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Oh..! my mistake...! Shouldn't have done that .. However,feel good to a small extent I got the option right at least.

Now it's clear to me..Hope once you come up with some more examples of these type in the forum, will be able to explain it properly...so waiting for those bullets...!

Send you a PM on this..!

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  19 Feb 2013, 06:41
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Hi e-GMAT,
Can you please share the links of free trial for the 'VERB-ING MODIFIERS' related topics...

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  19 Feb 2013, 10:11
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Just for you

-Rajat
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  20 Feb 2013, 02:52
Expert's post
egmat wrote:

Just for you

-Rajat

Thanks a lot Rajat...!

BTW,in the 'Modifiers-verb ing' section the Qs 6 and 7 ("NASA...") of post-assessment Quiz-I think,use of 'due to' is not proper and it should be 'because of' instead.As going by thumb rule,if you replace 'due to' in these two sentences by 'caused by' then it doesn't make sense.

Please correct me if I'm wrong!
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  29 Jun 2013, 17:29
It seems there is an exception to both the verb-ing rules :
1. Placement after a clause not preceded by a comma
The rule states verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding nound or noun phrase but below example shows the exception to this rule :
Exception : There are numerous products that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

1. Placement after a clause preceded by a comma
- Either presents an additional information about the preceding clause or presents the result of preceding clause
Exception : 3. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own. (GMAT Prep & Verbal 2nd Edition #107 – Choice B)

Need help to understand how do we differentiate b/w a right & a wrong choice for verb-ing modifier with all the exceptions stated above for it.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  15 Jul 2013, 04:55

In three months, biologist Glauco Machado gathered enough information about large numbers of a relatively unstudied order of arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish his first scientific paper.

I have query regarding pronouns. Here referent of him and his is biologist but cant it be ant specialist. Can you please guide me regarding pronoun ambiguity.

Regards,
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  16 Jul 2013, 06:32
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1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
sshivanis04 wrote:
It seems there is an exception to both the verb-ing rules :
1. Placement after a clause not preceded by a comma
The rule states verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding nound or noun phrase but below example shows the exception to this rule :
Exception : There are numerous products that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

1. Placement after a clause preceded by a comma
- Either presents an additional information about the preceding clause or presents the result of preceding clause
Exception : 3. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own. (GMAT Prep & Verbal 2nd Edition #107 – Choice B)

Need help to understand how do we differentiate b/w a right & a wrong choice for verb-ing modifier with all the exceptions stated above for it.

Hi there,

Just add this exception to the rules – “including” does not really follow the rules of verb-ing modifiers. Whether it is separated by comma or not, it modifies the preceding noun (or noun + modifiers) only. Think of including to play a role of "for example" (Again not in literal translation but only in a role).

So basically, the thing to keep in mind is that "including" is a versatile NOUN modifier. It always modifies a NOUN. But it is usually separated by a comma. And it may modify a noun that is separated by modifiers as well. Here are a few official sentences:
Example 1: (GMAT Prep)
A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, which includes the
establishment of size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits.

D. including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing

Comma + Including modifies "REMEDIES". But look at the modifiers that lie between this modifier and the modified noun.

Example 2: (GMAT Prep)
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany including , three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

E)mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Comma + Including modifies "TOOLS". But look at the modifier that lie between this modifier and the modified noun.

Example 3: (GMAT Prep & Verbal 2nd Edition #107)
Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style were influential on generations of bluegrass artists, was also an inspiration to many musicians, that included Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own.
Correct has , including where including modifies preceding noun

B) influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from
Comma + Including modifies "musicians" - in this case the closest noun.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  15 Aug 2013, 02:03
egmat wrote:

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.
A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

Remember that the comma that precedes “which” does not separate “which” but is part of the comma pair that separates the modifier "most of them…" from the rest of the sentence.
We will now find the correct choice from the remaining 4 choices.

First of all thanks a ton for providing wonderful articles. You have demystified the difficult concepts for us.

I have a doubt in the above question mentioned in your article. Although, i was able to find the correct answer but i could not understand the explanation of "which". While solving the Q, I misinterpreted that "which" is modifying "Jupiter". This you said was incorrect since " most of ......... Jupiter " is a non-essential clause.

But what is wrong if " which" indicates the planets. I believe "circling" modifies the clause having subject "astronomers" . Astronomers are not circling other stars.

Thanks & Regards

Arunima
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]  15 Aug 2013, 05:37
Expert's post

Hi Arunima,

Thanks for all your appreciation. I really appreciate it.

Now let’s come back to your doubt.

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.

The modification of “which” is not the problem in this sentence. “which” in the original sentence modifies “more than 80 massive planets”. This is so because the information that follows the main clause – “most of them as large or larger than Jupiter” – is placed between two commas. This makes this information non-essential for the overall logical meaning of the sentence.

Notice that when we remove this information form the sentence, we also get rid of both the commas, in the beginning and at the end of the non-essential phrase.

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.

In this case, “which” correctly refers to immediate preceding noun as mentioned above. This sentence is incorrect because the non-essential information is a mix of two idioms which is grammatically incorrect. We cannot write a combination of two idioms.

The correct answer choice corrects that error. Once again notice that both the commas belong to the information that comes between “more than 80 massive planets” and “circling”. The comma before the non-essential phrase is not the part of the main clause that will form “comma + circling”. This is will be a wrong modifier as it will modify the preceding clause. But the comma belong to the phrase that comes in between the main clause and “circling”. This is the reason why the correct answer choice is correct.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing   [#permalink] 15 Aug 2013, 05:37

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