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# VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2013, 23:50
bagdbmba wrote:
The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

@ e-GMAT,
Please clarify the doubts I've on this question -
1.“ 'having' is modifying the subject “The intricate structure of the compound eye” after which it has been placed. However, this leads to illogical meaning. Now the sentence means that the intricate structure has hundreds of miniature eyes. Hence, we certainly have modifier error here." - How it's illogical? As in the option E(OA), 'its' refers to the 'The intricate structure of the compound eye' I guess. Right?

2. The antecedent of both 'it' and 'its' is "the compound eye". Please correct me if I'm wrong.

Any update on this?

Would much appreciate your feedback.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2013, 12:10
Hi there,

1. Yes, the meaning is illogical in A and B since ‘having’ indicates that the structure has hundreds of miniature eyes, whereas it is the insect eye that has hundreds of miniature eyes.

2. Yes, ‘the compound insect eye’ is the noun to which both ‘it’ and ‘its’ refer. In both cases, the logical antecedent of the pronoun is the eye, not the structure.
Hope this helps!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2013, 00:12
egmat wrote:
Hi there,

1. Yes, the meaning is illogical in A and B since ‘having’ indicates that the structure has hundreds of miniature eyes, whereas it is the insect eye that has hundreds of miniature eyes.

2. Yes, ‘the compound insect eye’ is the noun to which both ‘it’ and ‘its’ refer. In both cases, the logical antecedent of the pronoun is the eye, not the structure.
Hope this helps!

Regards,
Meghna

Hi Meghna/e-GMAT,
Thanks for clarifying.
I'd much appreciate if you please share your analysis in the following threads.

doubt 1 , doubt 2 , doubt 3 , doubt 4 and doubt 5.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 02:53
bagdbmba wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi there,

1. Yes, the meaning is illogical in A and B since ‘having’ indicates that the structure has hundreds of miniature eyes, whereas it is the insect eye that has hundreds of miniature eyes.

2. Yes, ‘the compound insect eye’ is the noun to which both ‘it’ and ‘its’ refer. In both cases, the logical antecedent of the pronoun is the eye, not the structure.
Hope this helps!

Regards,
Meghna

Hi Meghna/e-GMAT,
Thanks for clarifying.
I'd much appreciate if you please share your analysis in the following threads.

doubt 1 , doubt 2 , doubt 3 , doubt 4 and doubt 5.

Hi e-GMAT,
Any update on this?

Look forward to hearing from you.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2013, 09:24
egmat wrote:
pavanpuneet wrote:
In the Question above, though I got the right answer, I would like to understand what is "including" modifying here? In other words, is it used as a modifier? Yes/No.

Hi @pavanpuneet,

There are numerous products in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

A. in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

B. that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

C. so as they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

D. so that there could be used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

E. such that they could use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

Now let’s look at the sentence with the correct answer choice B:

There are numerous products that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

The first thing to notice is that “including” does not follow the rules of the verb-ing modifiers. “Including” always refers to a noun entity and needless to say a logical noun entity. Generally, “including” is placed next to the noun entity it refers to. But that is not the case always.

This sentence is an example of that scenario. In this sentence, “including” is correctly modifying “numerous products”. It is jumping over the “that clause modifier” that modifies the same entity. Now “that clauses” are always placed next to the entity that they modify. So here, it is not possible to change the placement of “that clause”. Since “including” is pretty flexible, it has been separated from “numerous products” by adding a modifier in between. This usage is absolutely correct.

Take a look at the following correct official sentences:

1. A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. (GMAT Prep - Choice D).

“including” is jumping over the modifier “to reverse… population” to modify “remedies”.

2. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old. (GMAT Prep - Choice E)

“including” here is skipping the verb-ed modifier “found in Germany” to modify “tools” because that modifier cannot be placed elsewhere.

3. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own. (GMAT Prep & Verbal 2nd Edition #107 – Choice B)

Here “including” is preceded by a comma. Still it does not modify the preceding clause but the preceding noun. SO here it is placed next to the entity it modifies.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

So does it mean that whenever ing-modifier is seen in a question, there could be a scenario that it is not following rules of ing-modifier , but can still be OK, because of context of sentence!!... If Yes this can make people crazy
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2013, 09:24
egmat wrote:
pavanpuneet wrote:
In the Question above, though I got the right answer, I would like to understand what is "including" modifying here? In other words, is it used as a modifier? Yes/No.

Hi @pavanpuneet,

There are numerous products in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

A. in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

B. that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

C. so as they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

D. so that there could be used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

E. such that they could use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

Now let’s look at the sentence with the correct answer choice B:

There are numerous products that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

The first thing to notice is that “including” does not follow the rules of the verb-ing modifiers. “Including” always refers to a noun entity and needless to say a logical noun entity. Generally, “including” is placed next to the noun entity it refers to. But that is not the case always.

This sentence is an example of that scenario. In this sentence, “including” is correctly modifying “numerous products”. It is jumping over the “that clause modifier” that modifies the same entity. Now “that clauses” are always placed next to the entity that they modify. So here, it is not possible to change the placement of “that clause”. Since “including” is pretty flexible, it has been separated from “numerous products” by adding a modifier in between. This usage is absolutely correct.

Take a look at the following correct official sentences:

1. A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. (GMAT Prep - Choice D).

“including” is jumping over the modifier “to reverse… population” to modify “remedies”.

2. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old. (GMAT Prep - Choice E)

“including” here is skipping the verb-ed modifier “found in Germany” to modify “tools” because that modifier cannot be placed elsewhere.

3. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own. (GMAT Prep & Verbal 2nd Edition #107 – Choice B)

Here “including” is preceded by a comma. Still it does not modify the preceding clause but the preceding noun. SO here it is placed next to the entity it modifies.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

So does it mean that whenever ing-modifier is seen in a question, there could be a scenario that it is not following rules of ing-modifier , but can still be OK, because of context of sentence!!... If Yes then this can make people crazy
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2013, 09:35
ygdrasil24 wrote:
egmat wrote:
pavanpuneet wrote:
In the Question above, though I got the right answer, I would like to understand what is "including" modifying here? In other words, is it used as a modifier? Yes/No.

Hi @pavanpuneet,

There are numerous products in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

A. in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

B. that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

C. so as they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

D. so that there could be used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

E. such that they could use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

Now let’s look at the sentence with the correct answer choice B:

There are numerous products that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

The first thing to notice is that “including” does not follow the rules of the verb-ing modifiers. “Including” always refers to a noun entity and needless to say a logical noun entity. Generally, “including” is placed next to the noun entity it refers to. But that is not the case always.

This sentence is an example of that scenario. In this sentence, “including” is correctly modifying “numerous products”. It is jumping over the “that clause modifier” that modifies the same entity. Now “that clauses” are always placed next to the entity that they modify. So here, it is not possible to change the placement of “that clause”. Since “including” is pretty flexible, it has been separated from “numerous products” by adding a modifier in between. This usage is absolutely correct.

Take a look at the following correct official sentences:

1. A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. (GMAT Prep - Choice D).

“including” is jumping over the modifier “to reverse… population” to modify “remedies”.

2. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old. (GMAT Prep - Choice E)

“including” here is skipping the verb-ed modifier “found in Germany” to modify “tools” because that modifier cannot be placed elsewhere.

3. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own. (GMAT Prep & Verbal 2nd Edition #107 – Choice B)

Here “including” is preceded by a comma. Still it does not modify the preceding clause but the preceding noun. SO here it is placed next to the entity it modifies.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

So does it mean that whenever ing-modifier is seen in a question, there could be a scenario that it is not following rules of ing-modifier , but can still be OK, because of context of sentence!!... If Yes then this can make people crazy

Hi there,

As I said in my earlier post, "including" is an exception to the "comma + verb-ing modifiers". "Including" ALWAYS is a Noun Modifier. It does not matter if It is preceded by a comma and placed after a clause or not. "Including" is the exception to the rule of using "comma = verb-ing modifier".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2013, 10:38
1
KUDOS
Hi there,

As I said in my earlier post, "including" is an exception to the "comma + verb-ing modifiers". "Including" ALWAYS is a Noun Modifier. It does not matter if It is preceded by a comma and placed after a clause or not. "Including" is the exception to the rule of using "comma = verb-ing modifier".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Missed that...

As always Thanks a Ton... any amount of gratitude is still less for your contribution in improving our English. I just wish I had got a teacher like you in schools
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2014, 10:22
bagdbmba wrote:
The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

@ e-GMAT,
Please clarify the doubts I've on this question -
1.“ 'having' is modifying the subject “The intricate structure of the compound eye” after which it has been placed. However, this leads to illogical meaning. Now the sentence means that the intricate structure has hundreds of miniature eyes. Hence, we certainly have modifier error here." - How it's illogical? As in the option E(OA), 'its' refers to the 'The intricate structure of the compound eye' I guess. Right?

2. The antecedent of both 'it' and 'its' is "the compound eye". Please correct me if I'm wrong.

Posting the solution of the same problem discussed by Shraddha in the e-gmat forum.
I thought this would be useful to fellow students.

Friday, 14 December 2012, 07:53 AM
Hi Vasu,

• The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

It is true that comma + verb-ing modifies the preceding clause. But that happens when comma + verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause. There may be instances where you will see comma + verb-ing modifier is placed after the subject. In that case, the comma + verb-ing modifier modifies the subject.

Grammatically, in this OG 13#7 problem, “having” is modifying the subject “The intricate structure of the compound eye” after which it has been placed. However, this leads to illogical meaning. Now the sentence means that the intricate structure has hundreds of miniature eyes. Hence, we certainly have modifier error here.

Now, study the following OG 13#25 problem,

• Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

In this sentence, usage of “having” is absolutely correct. It is placed after the subject “neuroscientists” and hence correctly modifies that entity. The meaning here is that neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge… The modification conveys the logical meaning.

Now let’s talk about the comma + with modifiers. So here we are talking about prepositional phrases. “with” modifiers are very versatile modifiers. They can modify either the preceding clause or the preceding nouns. What they modify actually depends on the context of the sentence and the wording of the modifier itself.

• Bihar is India's poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111. In this sentence, with modifier actually modifies the preceding noun. With modifier in this sentence has the following sense. Notice how “which has” can be understood to replace “with”. India’s poorest state, which has an annual per capita income of$111

However, this modifier can be understood to modify the subject of the clause as well because of the nature of the verb - is. This is a linking verb, which establishes the following relationship:
Bihar = India’s poorest state.

Now lets consider a scenario in which “with” modifier modifies the preceding clause. This is a GMATPrep Question. You can find the detailed solution of this question at this link.

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

The comma +with modifier above modifies the preceding clause. In essence this sentence can be written as two separate sentences:

1. Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches.
2. Their arms and legs are hung like socks on a clothesline.

So sentence 2 has been converted into with modifier. This modifier extends the thought of the preceding clause by providing a detail supporting it.

Now if the above sounds very complicated, then do not worry about it. As long as you know that these modifiers are versatile and hence can modify preceding clause and preceding nouns, you would be fine. Let the meaning of the sentence guide you. You should understand the meaning of the sentence and ensure that one of these roles fit well.

Hope this helps. smile
Thanks.

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2014, 08:50
Can I have a series of verb-ing modifiers modifying the preceding indepedent clause?

For example:

My cousin took extra class in every semester in the college, graduating in three years, ranking first in all subjects, and being the youngest to graduate.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2014, 10:24
egmat wrote:
Hi Himanshu,

You are absolutely correct. Thanks for bringing our attention to this typographical error. There should NOT be any comma before "and to publish". As such choice A in the answer choices does not show a comma but definitely the original sentence was originally written with a comma. This error will be rectified.

Thanks,

In the question
In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.
A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

Correct answer is C right?

But my confusion arise on seeing COMMA with verb -ing word.
So ""Circling" should modify the Clause preceding the COMMA.
Then even it does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause
Astronomer detected more than 80 massive planets and he is circling other stars. Seems very awkward .

Iam referring Verb-ing modifiers part 1
"Now, per the intended meaning of the sentence, Joe became the CFO of the company. This event led to increase in his salary. Now, the subject of the sentence is “Joe”. However, he is not the doer of the verb “became”. He did not make himself the CFO of the company. Now look at the verb-ing modifier “increasing”. Since verb-ing modifier denotes an action and hence associates with a verb, “increasing” associates with “Joe”. The sentence thus means that Joe became the CFO of the company and as a result he increased his salary. We know that this is not even a possibility. What resulted in Joe’s increased salary is the event of his becoming the CFO.
Hence, even if this sentence appears to be written in appropriate construction, it is incorrect since here the verb-ing modifier does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause."

Rrsnathan.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2014, 10:28
egmat wrote:

B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling: Incorrect.
i. This choice repeats the idiom and parallelism errors of choice A.
ii. A modifier is not separated from the entity it modifies by using “and”.

Hi egmat,

thank you very much for a wonderful explanation.
I have a question on part of the explanation quoted above:
I did not quite get your second point: Do you mean the following would be incorrect?
Scientists found a new star orbiting sun and glowing bright. --> "orbiting sun" modifies the noun (it touches) "start" and so does "glowing bright". Is such a construction right? Could we have two (without comma) verb+ing modifiers separated by "and" and modifying the same noun?

That raises another question in my mind: Could we have two (with comman) verb+ing modifiers modifying the same clause?
e.g. I went shopping, walking on my foot and listening to my favorite music. --> went shopping as I walked and as I listened to music?

Thank you very much in advance.

Last edited by divineacclivity on 08 Jun 2014, 03:33, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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29 May 2014, 18:31
egmat wrote:

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.
A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

Notice the modifier – “which circle…”. This relative pronoun modifier modifies the noun “80 massive planets”. Some of you may wonder that “which circle…” modifies the closest noun “Jupiter”. This is not correct. And this is where logical meaning and understanding the sentence structure comes to our aid.

Notice that “most of them as large or larger than Jupiter” is a modifier that provides additional information about the 80 massive planets. This modifier is encapsulated in a comma pair. So even if we remove this modifier from the sentence, the meaning will not be altered. So for the sake of our discussion, let’s remove this modifier:
• In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter,which circle other stars.

Now as you can see, “which circle…” modifies the noun phrase “80 massive planets”. Now this modifier is not written in correct construction since which is typically preceded by a comma. Remember that the comma that precedes “which” does not separate “which” but is part of the comma pair that separates the modifier "most of them…" from the rest of the sentence.
We will now find the correct choice from the remaining 4 choices.

Hi egmat,

In the explanation above, are you implying that ",which" can skip the middle fluff and modify a noun/subject in a completely different clause? Meaning, it doesn't have to modify the noun directly preceding it but it can actually skip the whole thing?

I'm not sure if you're saying that the above is incorrect because it HAS to skip it or if you're implying that it CAN skip it and still be correct.

Sorry about the confusion but would greatly appreciate your help.

Thanks!
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2015, 02:29
Hello egmat,

I'm confused about the usage of the pronoun "to publish his first article" in the second question. please explain
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2016, 06:56
Hi Egmat, great explanations, thank you. I wonder why MGMAT SC doesn't even mention this. No wonder I still have to guess my way through some questions after studying that book twice. Where can we find la last type verbING in the beginning of a clause?
Thank you!
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2016, 06:37
In the POE part it is said that "A modifier is not separated from the entity it modifies by using “and”. ".
Is this always true? I was of the opinion that a modifier "can" be separated from the entity(say a noun) it is modifying by using "and" especially when there are two modifiers as in the case of parallelism. Can someone please explain this to me.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2016, 10:44
mausamlondon wrote:
In the POE part it is said that "A modifier is not separated from the entity it modifies by using “and”. ".
Is this always true? I was of the opinion that a modifier "can" be separated from the entity(say a noun) it is modifying by using "and" especially when there are two modifiers as in the case of parallelism. Can someone please explain this to me.

Can you come up with an example?
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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01 May 2016, 01:38
Icecream87 wrote:
mausamlondon wrote:
In the POE part it is said that "A modifier is not separated from the entity it modifies by using “and”. ".
Is this always true? I was of the opinion that a modifier "can" be separated from the entity(say a noun) it is modifying by using "and" especially when there are two modifiers as in the case of parallelism. Can someone please explain this to me.

Can you come up with an example?

Sure, the example is coincidentally from another of egmat's discussion:
ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers (I can't post urls right now ..sorry about that)

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending
B. extends
C. extended
D. it extended
E. is extending

The correct answer is A.
...a giant fungus...spawned by ... "and" extending....
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VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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03 May 2016, 09:01
mausamlondon wrote:
Icecream87 wrote:
mausamlondon wrote:
In the POE part it is said that "A modifier is not separated from the entity it modifies by using “and”. ".
Is this always true? I was of the opinion that a modifier "can" be separated from the entity(say a noun) it is modifying by using "and" especially when there are two modifiers as in the case of parallelism. Can someone please explain this to me.

Can you come up with an example?

Sure, the example is coincidentally from another of egmat's discussion:
ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers (I can't post urls right now ..sorry about that)

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending
B. extends
C. extended
D. it extended
E. is extending

The correct answer is A.
...a giant fungus...spawned by ... "and" extending....

Hi,
If my opinion sure, if you have two or more modifiers for a single entity then you have to use AND to keep everything together. However not when i single modifier is modifying a single entity

You won't say: the circle AND covering the region has a radius of 2

However you should say : the circle colored red AND covering the region has a radius of 2

Hope it helps
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VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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03 May 2016, 15:26
Sorry but I don't agree with your reasoning.
In answer choice B) there are two modifiers both of which modify the 80 massive planets. Consider option B) was something like " most of them at least as large as Jupiter but some of them smaller than Saturn". In this case option B) would have been correct. I think in the present form option B) is incorrect because the two modifiers do not look parallel. The first modifier is a comparison with the subject "most of them", the second one starts with "and circling" in which there is no such subject.
Also it is not okay to give a general statement like a modifier cannot be separated from the entity it modifies by and, being clearly demonstrated by the example I pointed out earlier.
VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing   [#permalink] 03 May 2016, 15:26

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