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# Vervet monkey use different alarm calls to warn each other

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Vervet monkey use different alarm calls to warn each other [#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 06:00
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Vervet monkey use different alarm calls to warn each other of nearby predators, depending on whether the danger comes from land or from the air.

Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the behavior of vervet monkeys described above?

A. By varying the pitch of its alarm call, a vervet monkey can indicate the number of predators approaching.

B. Different land-based predators are responsible for different numbers of vervet monkey deaths.

C. No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the air.

D. Vervet monkeys avoid land-dased predators by climbing trees but avoid predation from the air by diving into foliage.

E. Certain land-based predators feed only on vervet monkeys, whereas every predator that attacks vervet monkeys from the air feeds on many different animals.
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Re: Vervet monkeys use [#permalink]  22 Jan 2013, 13:57
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amardeep03 wrote:
Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other of nearby predators, depending on whether the danger comes from land or from the air. Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the behavior of vervet monkeys described above?
(A) By varying the pitch of its alarm call, a vervet monkey can indicate the number of predators approaching.
(B) Different land-based predators are responsible for different numbers of vervet monkey deaths.
(C) No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the air.
(D) Vervet monkeys avoid land-based predators by climbing trees but avoid predation from the air by diving into foliage.
(E) Certain land-based predators feed only on vervet monkeys, whereas every predator that attacks vervet monkeys from the air feeds on many different animals.

BTW, you chopped off the end of answer (E) --- I had to find it on another site.
So, the vervet monkeys make a distinction --- one alarm for predators by land, and another for predators from the air. Why? Why two alarms? Why wouldn't just one generic alarm call --- "Predators!" ---- be sufficient?

(A) By varying the pitch of its alarm call, a vervet monkey can indicate the number of predators approaching.
The different calls distinguish the means by which the predator approaches, land or air, and has nothing to do with the number of predators. This completely changes the issue.

(B) Different land-based predators are responsible for different numbers of vervet monkey deaths.
If this were the case, we would expect different calls for different land-based predators --- this tells us nothing about the land/air distinction.

(C) No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the air.
OK, this would mean there's no ambiguity in what each of the two calls means, but fundamentally doesn't explain why there would need to be two alarm calls instead of just one that means "predators!"

(D) Vervet monkeys avoid land-based predators by climbing trees but avoid predation from the air by diving into foliage.
Aha! The vervet monkeys take different evasive action, depending on whether the predator comes by air or by land --- thus, each alarm call would signal a unique evasive strategy appropriate to a predator from that medium. This make a great deal of sense.

(E) Certain land-based predators feed only on vervet monkeys, whereas every predator that attacks vervet monkeys from the air feeds on many different animals.
Whether other critters get eaten too is irrelevant to vervet monkeys trying to avoid getting eaten. The animal would not develop a difference in its alarm call to save some other species of animal.

The only sensible answer is (D).

Does all this make sense?

Mike
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Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other [#permalink]  28 Sep 2012, 03:52
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Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other of nearby predators, depending on whether the danger comes from land or from the air.
Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the behavior of vervet monkeys described above?

A. By varying the pitch of its alarm call, a vervet monkey can indicate the number of predators approaching.
B. Different land-based predators are responsible for different numbers of vervet monkey deaths.
C. No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the air.
D. Vervet monkeys avoid land-based predators by climbing trees but avoid predation from the air by diving into foliage.
E. Certain land-based predators feed only on vervet monkeys, whereas every predator that attacks vervet monkeys from the air feeds on many different animals.
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Last edited by getgyan on 01 Oct 2012, 00:02, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls [#permalink]  28 Sep 2012, 04:38
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getgyan wrote:
Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other of nearby predators, depending on whether the danger comes from land or from the air.
Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the behavior of vervet monkeys described above?

A. By varying the pitch of its alarm call, a vervet monkey can indicate the number of predators approaching.
B. Different land-based predators are responsible for different numbers of vervet monkey deaths.
C. No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the air.
D. Vervet monkeys avoid land-based predators by climbing trees but avoid predation from the air by diving into foliage.
E. Certain land-based predators feed only on vervet monkeys, whereas every predator that attacks vervet monkeys from the air feeds on many different animals.

Correct answer should be D

As ONLY that option justifies the need for DIFFERENT alarm calls, because they use different strategies to escape in different situations.
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Re: Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls [#permalink]  28 Sep 2012, 23:32
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getgyan wrote:
Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other of nearby predators, depending on whether the danger comes from land or from the air.
Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the behavior of vervet monkeys described above?

A. By varying the pitch of its alarm call, a vervet monkey can indicate the number of predators approaching.
B. Different land-based predators are responsible for different numbers of vervet monkey deaths.
C. No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the air.
D. Vervet monkeys avoid land-based predators by climbing trees but avoid predation from the air by diving into foliage.
E. Certain land-based predators feed only on vervet monkeys, whereas every predator that attacks vervet monkeys from the air feeds on many different animals.

is the answer C?
i dont believe in D because it unnecessarily gives an insight on how the monkeys save their lives.
Option C instead answer the behaviour of the monkeys reasoning WHY THEY HAVE TWO ALARMs.
the statememnt says: "Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other " ,Here DIFFERENT is the catch word.
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Re: Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls [#permalink]  01 Oct 2012, 00:18
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is the answer C?

No the answer is D
i dont believe in D because it unnecessarily gives an insight on how the monkeys save their lives.

For that very reason, you should believe it. A monkey warns other monkeys by a sound. The other monkeys recognize the sound and they know whether they have to climb the tree or get down to foliage. That is the very purpose of the creation of those sound.
Option C instead answer the behaviour of the monkeys reasoning WHY THEY HAVE TWO ALARMs.

The discussion is not about Why they have TWO alarms rather the discussion is about why they have DIFFERENT alarms?
the statememnt says: "Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other " ,Here DIFFERENT is the catch word.

Yes, I agree. DIFFERENT is the catch word. The discussion is why are the alarms not same, why are they DIFFERENT?

OA is D
Any other thoughts, please let me know

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Re: Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls [#permalink]  01 Oct 2012, 01:38
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Hi,

This is a 'resolve the paradox' question. The easiest way to deal with it is to ask, "Why do the velvet monkeys have different sounds?". Anything that explains that the best is the correct answer.

A. Nothing is mentioned about the number of predators in the stimulus.

B. Again, the number of predators is irrelevant.

C. This might seem to be a close choice. But think for a while, what if this is true? In that case, maybe there is no need for two different sounds.

D. This actually REQUIRES the need for different calls.

E. This is out of context here.

Hope this helps.

Regards,

Shouvik.
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Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other [#permalink]  21 Jan 2013, 23:18
1
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Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other of nearby predators,
depending on whether the danger comes from land or from the air.

Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the behavior of vervet monkeys
described above?

a) By varying the pitch of its alarm call, a vervet monkey can indicate the number of predators
approaching.
b) Different land-based predators are responsible for different numbers of vervet monkey
deaths.
c) No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the
air.
d) Vervet monkeys avoid land-based predators by climbing trees but avoid predation from the
air by diving into foliage.
e) Certain land-based predators feed only on vervet monkeys, whereas
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 06:22
E is my answer. I will explain if it's right.
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 06:29
I think it is between C and D . C looks like an assumption rather than explanation.
Think it is D
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 06:34
Sorry it should be D only. I see it now.
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 06:35
D seems like a trap. This describes the monkey's reactions, not necessarily their warning mechanisms.

If a predator of the velvet monkies attacked from both the land and air, how could the monkeys issue a different warning signal?

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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 06:57
Looks Like D

From the statement we can make out that the monkeys have two signals.
Based on the stem C is a safe assumption to make but it doesn't explain their behavior.

D states their behavior. It ties the the direction they move to the warning calls when attacked by a predator and fits best with the stem.
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 06:57
"depending on whether the danger comes from land or from the air"

For the above reason C...
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 12:17
(C) it is. The answer should explain "why monkey use different alarm calls to warn each other of nearby predators" .Because they beleive that "No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the air." Yes,one can look at it as an assumption but (D) does not explain the cause of this behavior infact it describes the behavior.
What is the OA ?
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 13:21
C it is

The main point here is that the monkey should be able to distinguish between land attack and air attack.

The vervet monkey distinguishes between land attack and air attack based on the predator. If the same predator could attack from both land and air, the monkey would not be able to distinguish between the two. Hence it is essential that a predator is not able to attack from both land and air.
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 13:40
I will also go for C
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 14:58
would go for d

here's why-
Vervets use different calls to warn each other of nearby predators.
it is 'predators' and not necessarily 'actual attack'

as for C, a predator ( as in singular) with dual attack capabilities cannot attack from air and land at the SAME time. the attack will come from one or the other location. BUT different kinds of predators can attack simultaneously , say some from the land and some from the sky.

a potential problem with D (also shared by C) is that vervets could issue both type of calls for 'different' predators - one for those in the nearby skies and another for those on the ground. then where do vervets go?

oe pls
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[#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 17:30
D definitely.
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Re: CR Vervet monkeys ( Resolve paradox type) [#permalink]  05 Oct 2006, 17:41
laxieqv wrote:
Vervet monkey use different alarm calls to warn each other of nearby predators, depending on whether the danger comes from land or from the air.

Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the behavior of vervet monkeys described above?

A. By varying the pitch of its alarm call, a vervet monkey can indicate the number of predators approaching.

B. Different land-based predators are responsible for different numbers of vervet monkey deaths.

C. No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the air.

D. Vervet monkeys avoid land-dased predators by climbing trees but avoid predation from the air by diving into foliage.

E. Certain land-based predators feed only on vervet monkeys, whereas every predator that attacks vervet monkeys from the air feeds on many different animals.

D.
this explains that since the defense mechanism to be used are different, vervet monkeys have different alarm signals.
Re: CR Vervet monkeys ( Resolve paradox type)   [#permalink] 05 Oct 2006, 17:41
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