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Virtually everything astronomers known about objects

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Virtually everything astronomers known about objects [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2004, 04:00
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Virtually everything astronomers known about objects outside the solar system is based on the detection of photons-quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Yet there is another form of radiation that permeates the universe:neutrinos. With (as its name implies) no electric charge,and negligible mass, the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe, even traversing substantial aggregations of matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. Neutrinos can thus escape from regions of space where light and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blockedby matter. Furthermore, neutrinos carry with them information about the site and circumstances of their production: therefore, the detection of cosmic neutrinos could provide new information about a wide variety of cosmic phenomena and about the history of the universe.
But how can scientists detect a particle that interacts so infrequently with other matter? Twenty-five years passed between Pauli's hypothesis that the neutrino existed and its actual detection: since then virtually all research with neutrinos has been with neutrinos created artificially in large particle accelerators and studied under neutrino microscopes. But a neutrino telescope, capable of detecting cosmic neutrinos, is difficult to construct. No apparatus can detect neutrinos unless it is extremely massive, because great mass is synonymous with huge numbers of nucleons (neutrons and protons),and the more massive the detector, the greater the probability of one of its nucleon's reacting with a neutrino. In addition, the apparatus must be sufficiently shieldedfrom the interfering effects of other particles.
The strongest motivation for the DUMAND project is that it will exploit an important source of information about the universe. The extension of astronomy from visible light to radio waves to x-rays and gamma rays never failed to lead to the discovery of unusual objects such as radio galaxies, quasars, and pulsars. Each of these discoveries came as a surprise. Neutrino astronomy will doubtless bring its own share of surprises.
1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the passage as a whole?
(A) At the Threshold of Neutrino Astronomy
(B) Neutrinos and the History of the Universe
(C) The Creation and Study of Neutrinos
(D) The DUMAND System and How It Works
(E) The Properties of the Neutrino

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


2. With which of the following statements regarding neutrino astronomy would the author be most likely to agree?
(A) Neutrino astronomy will supersede all present forms of astronomy.
(B) Neutrino astronomy will be abandoned if the DUMAND project fails.
(C) Neutrino astronomy can be expected to lead to major breakthroughs in astronomy.
(D) Neutrino astronomy will disclose phenomena that will be more surprising than past discoveries.
(E) Neutrino astronomy will always be characterized by a large time lag between hypothesis and experimental confirmation.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
C


3. In the last paragraph, the author describes the development of astronomy in order to
(A) suggest that the potential findings of neutrino astronomy can be seen as part of a series of astronomical successes
(B) illustrate the role of surprise in scientific discovery
(C) demonstrate the effectiveness of the DUMAND apparatus in detecting neutrinos
(D) name some cosmic phenomena that neutrino astronomy will illuminate
(E) contrast the motivation of earlier astronomers with that of the astrophysicists working on the DUMAND project

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
A


4. According to the passage, one advantage that neutrinos have for studies in astronomy is that they
(A) have been detected for the last twenty-five years
(B) possess a variable electric charge
(C) are usually extremely massive
(D) carry information about their history with them
(E) are very similar to other electromagnetic particles

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
D


5. According to the passage, the primary use of the apparatus mentioned in the highlighted portion would be to
(A) increase the mass of a neutrino
(B) interpret the information neutrinos carry with them
(C) study the internal structure of a neutrino
(D) see neutrinos in distant regions of space
(E) detect the presence of cosmic neutrinos

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
E


Last edited by MacFauz on 06 Mar 2014, 21:20, edited 2 times in total.
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 [#permalink] New post 25 Apr 2004, 21:17
Time 8 Minutes

1. B
2. C
3. A
4. D
5. E

Dharmin
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 [#permalink] New post 26 Apr 2004, 05:15
6 mins

1) B
2) C
3) A
4) D
5) E
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Re: [#9] RC Challenge: Astronomers [#permalink] New post 28 Apr 2004, 18:36
Quote:
1. Time yourself
2. Solve as fast as you can
3. Please explain your solutions and mention your time taken


Virtually everything astronomers known about objects
outside the solar system is based on the detection of
photons-quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Yet there
is another form of radiation that permeates the universe:
(5) neutrinos. With (as its name implies) no electric charge,
and negligible mass, the neutrino interacts with other
particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire
universe, even traversing substantial aggregations of
matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. Neu-
(10) trinos can thus escape from regions of space where light
and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blocked
by matter. Furthermore, neutrinos carry with them
information about the site and circumstances of their
production: therefore, the detection of cosmic neutrinos
(15) could provide new information about a wide variety of
cosmic phenomena and about the history of the uni-
verse.
But how can scientists detect a particle that interacts
so infrequently with other matter? Twenty-five years
(20) passed between Pauli's hypothesis that the neutrino
existed and its actual detection: since then virtually all
research with neutrinos has been with neutrinos created
artificially in large particle accelerators and studied
under neutrino microscopes. But a neutrino telescope,
(25) capable of detecting cosmic neutrinos, is difficult to co-
nstruct. No apparatus can detect neutrinos unless it is
extremely massive, because great mass is synonymous
with huge numbers of nucleons (neutrons and protons),
and the more massive the detector, the greater the pro-
(30) bability of one of its nucleon's reacting with a neutrino.
In addition, the apparatus must be sufficiently shielded
from the interfering effects of other particles.
Fortunately, a group of astrophysicists has proposed
a means of detecting cosmic neutrinos by harnessing the
(35) mass of the ocean. Named DUMAND, for Deep Under-
water Muon and Neutrino Detector, the project calls for
placing an array of light sensors at a depth of five kilo-
meters under the ocean surface. The detecting medium is
the seawater itself: when a neutrino interacts with a
(40)particle in an atom of seawater. the result is a cascade of
electrically charged particles and a flash of light that can
be detected by the sensors. The five kilometers of sea-
water above the sensors will shield them from the interf-
ering effects of other high-energy particles raining down
(45) through the atmosphere.
The strongest motivation for the DUMAND project
is that it will exploit an important source of information
about the universe. The extension of astronomy from
visible light to radio waves to x-rays and gamma rays
(50) never failed to lead to the discovery of unusual objects
such as radio galaxies, quasars, and pulsars. Each of
these discoveries came as a surprise. Neutrino astronomy
will doubtless bring its own share of surprises.



Quote:
1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the
passage as a whole?
(A) At the Threshold of Neutrino Astronomy
(B) Neutrinos and the History of the Universe
(C) The Creation and Study of Neutrinos
(D) The DUMAND System and How It Works
(E) The Properties of the Neutrino


Answer : A

Quote:
2. With which of the following statements regarding
neutrino astronomy would the author be most likely
to agree?
(A) Neutrino astronomy will supersede all present
forms of astronomy.
(B) Neutrino astronomy will be abandoned if the
DUMAND project fails.
(C) Neutrino astronomy can be expected to lead to
major breakthroughs in astronomy.
(D) Neutrino astronomy will disclose phenomena that
will be more surprising than past discoveries.
(E) Neutrino astronomy will always be characterized
by a large time lag between hypothesis and
experimental confirmation
.

Answer: C

Quote:
3. In the last paragraph, the author describes the
development of astronomy in order to
(A) suggest that the potential findings of neutrino
astronomy can be seen as part of a series of
astronomical successes
(B) illustrate the role of surprise in scientific discovery
(C) demonstrate the effectiveness of the DUMAND
apparatus in detecting neutrinos
(D) name some cosmic phenomena that neutrino
astronomy will illuminate
(E) contrast the motivation of earlier astronomers with
that of the astrophysicists working on the
DUMAND project


Answer: A

Quote:
4. According to the passage, one advantage that neutrinos
have for studies in astronomy is that they
(A) have been detected for the last twenty-five years
(B) possess a variable electric charge
(C) are usually extremely massive
(D) carry information about their history with them
(E) are very similar to other electromagnetic particles


Answer : D

Quote:
5. According to the passage, the primary use of the
apparatus mentioned in lines 24-32 would be to
(A) increase the mass of a neutrino
(B) interpret the information neutrinos carry with them
(C) study the internal structure of a neutrino
(D) see neutrinos in distant regions of space
(E) detect the presence of cosmic neutrinos

Answer: E
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 [#permalink] New post 29 Apr 2004, 02:33
Hi Praet,
Any suggestion to select proper title for topic ? Your feedback highly solicited on Question - 1 of this topic.

Dharmin
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 [#permalink] New post 29 Apr 2004, 07:04
Dharmin wrote:
Hi Praet,
Any suggestion to select proper title for topic ? Your feedback highly solicited on Question - 1 of this topic.

Dharmin


i dont think there is a lot of "history of the universe" in this passage.

Read the first few lines of the passage.

Virtually everything astronomers known about objects
outside the solar system is based on the detection of
photons-quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Yet there
is another form of radiation that permeates the universe:
(5) neutrinos.


Its starts off by saying, virtually everything... and then introduces neutrinos...and then the entire passage is devoted to how neutrinos can be useful..

I hope this helps. If you read it once again, i am sure you will see the error in choosing B. I am quite sure the answer is A, but let me know if you disagree. we can discuss it.

Just a note about your error log.

This is a good candidate for your error log. just make a note for yourself saying... the first paragraph gives the most important clue about the title...of course you have to study the answer choices for choosing the right answer.

The more you practice RC's , the more closer you will get to a clearly defined strategy for yourself. Make notes for every mistake you make. no matter how boring this sounds, if you maintain this discipline, you might see a difference. Go over your log every time you start your prep.

Sincerely
Praet
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 [#permalink] New post 29 Apr 2004, 13:59
I aced this passage. I eliminated B for the first one because the Author does not mention about the history of the universe in the entire scope. I liked the word threshold because already Neutrinos can be detected and that itself is a major breakthrough ( mentioned in the begining of the second paragraph )

took 5 minutes

1.A
2.C
3.A
4.D
5.E
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 [#permalink] New post 30 Apr 2004, 02:00
Praetorian wrote:
This is a good candidate for your error log. just make a note for yourself saying... the first paragraph gives the most important clue about the title...of course you have to study the answer choices for choosing the right answer.


Correct praet, Thanks for reply. I accord you and i have taken this as a note, ofcourse to personal rc-log :)

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 [#permalink] New post 07 May 2004, 18:14
Time: 9 minutes.

Yeah!!! I got them all right.
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Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects [#permalink] New post 07 Mar 2014, 03:34
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Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects   [#permalink] 07 Mar 2014, 03:34
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