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# Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of

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Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2011, 16:31
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Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient Asia about sixty million years ago. Not until about ten million years later did species of whales develop specialized kidneys enabling them to drink salt water. Although fossil evidence shows that some early whale species that lacked such kidneys sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans, these species must have had to return frequently to freshwater rivers to drink. Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information given?

A. Fossils of whale species dating from between sixty million and fifty million years ago will not be found on continents that were at the time separated from ancient Asia by wide expanses of ocean.
B. Among whale fossils that date from later than about fifty million years ago, none are fossils of whale species that drank only fresh water.
C. Fossils of whale species that drank fresh water will not be found in close proximity to fossils of whale species that drank salt water.
D. The earliest whales that drank salt water differed from fresh-water-drinking whales only in their possession of specialized kidneys.
E. Between sixty million and fifty million years ago, the freshwater lakes and rivers in which whales originated were gradually invaded by salt water.

Guys - any idea what the answer will be?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2011, 23:37
I will go with A here.
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2011, 01:15
It's E clearly.
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2011, 01:22
Sorry guy - I have tried finding the answer and its A. Can you please explain the reasoning why it should be A and not others?
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2011, 01:58
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I this choice A is more stronger. This choice prove that the whale cannot move to another continent before they develop kidney (absorb salt water)

In choice C, some of you may assume that each whale species will live in their own habitat, salt water or fresh water => prove that they develop super kidney, but it does not infer that whales swim ONLY in their own habitat. They can go around :D>
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2011, 02:27
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enigma123 wrote:
Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient Asia about sixty million years ago. Not until about ten million years later did species of whales develop specialized kidneys enabling them to drink salt water. Although fossil evidence shows that some early whale species that lacked such kidneys sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans, these species must have had to return frequently to freshwater rivers to drink. Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information given?

A. Fossils of whale species dating from between sixty million and fifty million years ago will not be found on continents that were at the time separated from ancient Asia by wide expanses of ocean.
Clearly supports the statement from the prompt that although some whales did swim in salt water oceans, they had to return to freshwater rivers to drink. Hence it is implied that whales could not have travelled vast expanses of oceans. Consequently fossils of whales cannot be found in such continents that were very far from Asia

B. Among whale fossils that date from later than about fifty million years ago, none are fossils of whale species that drank only fresh water.
Contradicts the information in the prompt that only around 10 million years ago saltwater whales started emerging. Also, emergence of saltwater whales does not mean that freshwater whales ceased to exist

C. Fossils of whale species that drank fresh water will not be found in close proximity to fossils of whale species that drank salt water.
Irrelevant. Nothing in the prompt supports or contradicts this.

D. The earliest whales that drank salt water differed from fresh-water-drinking whales only in their possession of specialized kidneys.
Nothing in the prompt supports this. Specialized kidneys has been mentioned as an attribute of saltwater whales, but not the ONLY attribute.

E. Between sixty million and fifty million years ago, the freshwater lakes and rivers in which whales originated were gradually invaded by salt water.
Irrelevant. Nothing in the prompt supports or contradicts this.
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2011, 03:35
A the Best
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Last edited by mydreammba on 28 Dec 2011, 18:27, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2011, 05:20
If ans is A i am confused.

scorpionz,

option A says these continents were separated by ocean sixty million years back.
and donsnot give any clue that there was ocen expense there that time. I dont agree on the conclusion that you have drawn from this option. you might be correct, can you explain in greater details.
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2011, 06:41
getmydream wrote:
If ans is A i am confused.

scorpionz,

option A says these continents were separated by ocean sixty million years back.
and donsnot give any clue that there was ocen expense there that time. I dont agree on the conclusion that you have drawn from this option. you might be correct, can you explain in greater details.

Not sure if I understood your question...
Option A states this -
A. Fossils of whale species dating from between sixty million and fifty million years ago will not be found on continents that were at the time separated from ancient Asia by wide expanses of ocean.

The key to the answer is the bolded portion above. Since the ocean expanses were wide, it implies that whales could not have crossed from Asia to other continents.

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2011, 00:06
A makes sense. It supports the conclusion that whales sixty million years ago could not travel vast expanses of oceans and hence, their fossils were not found across those lands. They were in close proximity to Asia and had to return to their freshwater sources.
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2014, 05:18
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A. Fossils of whale species dating from between sixty million and fifty million years ago will not be found on continents that were at the time separated from ancient Asia by wide expanses of ocean. OK - The conclusion must tie together two disparate claims: whales originated in Asia + species must have returned after swimming into salt water. This is the only conclusion that supports the authority of the claims. Take note of the "must"

B. Among whale fossils that date from later than about fifty million years ago, none are fossils of whale species that drank only fresh water. Reverse answer. This conclusion does not make sense after the premises given.

C. Fossils of whale species that drank fresh water will not be found in close proximity to fossils of whale species that drank salt water. Reverse answer. The fossils must be found in close proximity because "these species" must have had to return.

D. The earliest whales that drank salt water differed from fresh-water-drinking whales only in their possession of specialized kidneys. Could be true; shell game. It's tempting because indeed the kidneys must have been different. Even so, it need not be true. If it were true, it would need different support that what is provided.

E. Between sixty million and fifty million years ago, the freshwater lakes and rivers in which whales originated were gradually invaded by salt water. Could be true. If there freshwater lakes were not invaded by salt water, it is still possible that whale's kidney evolved because of a different cause.
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2014, 21:29
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enigma123 wrote:
Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of ancient Asia about sixty million years ago. Not until about ten million years later did species of whales develop specialized kidneys enabling them to drink salt water. Although fossil evidence shows that some early whale species that lacked such kidneys sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans, these species must have had to return frequently to freshwater rivers to drink. Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information given?

A. Fossils of whale species dating from between sixty million and fifty million years ago will not be found on continents that were at the time separated from ancient Asia by wide expanses of ocean.
B. Among whale fossils that date from later than about fifty million years ago, none are fossils of whale species that drank only fresh water.
C. Fossils of whale species that drank fresh water will not be found in close proximity to fossils of whale species that drank salt water.
D. The earliest whales that drank salt water differed from fresh-water-drinking whales only in their possession of specialized kidneys.
E. Between sixty million and fifty million years ago, the freshwater lakes and rivers in which whales originated were gradually invaded by salt water.

Guys - any idea what the answer will be?

Quote:
My take:

Whales originated >>-where->> in ancient Asia about sixty (60 million years ago)
species of whales (Asia/which continent dont know) develop spl salt water kidneys (50 million years ago).
Although fossil evidence >>says>>> (species - kidneys) sometimes swam in the Earth’s saltwater oceans (not of Asia as Asia has fresh water), these species must have had to return (return means they travelled back) to drink.

means, kidney -minus whales of salt water (not Asia) went to freshwater (in Asia) ..this is saying that it did cross..

Why A is correct>??

I am uncertain how you arrived at the conclusions above.

Here is the explanation:
- 60 million yrs ago, whales originated in freshwater (which means lakes and rivers) of Asia
- Special kidneys that allowed whales to drink salt water evolved 50 million yrs ago.
- Sometimes whales without special kidneys swam into saltwater but they had to return frequently to freshwater.

Think about your geography - Continents are separated by huge saltwater oceans. A continent has lakes and rivers (freshwater) within it. The rivers connect to the ocean. If you want to travel from Asia to North America by water, you will need to go through the huge ocean between them.
60 million years ago, whales originated in Asia's freshwater so they were in the continent of Asia. They did not have special kidneys so they could not travel across the ocean. Even if they did enter the ocean, they needed to return back to the freshwater of Asia. Point is, they couldn't swim far from Asia. Till 50 million yrs ago, special kidneys did not develop. So for the 10 million yrs from 60 million to 50 million yrs ago, whales couldn't leave the coast of Asia and swim far. So they couldn't reach the continents far from Asia separated by saltwater oceans.

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Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for $199 Veritas Prep Reviews GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 7706 Followers: 713 Kudos [?]: 144 [0], given: 0 Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Jul 2015, 09:09 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. Manager Status: One Last Shot !!! Joined: 04 May 2014 Posts: 209 Location: India Concentration: Marketing, Social Entrepreneurship GMAT 1: 630 Q44 V32 GMAT 2: 680 Q47 V35 Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 72 [0], given: 135 Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Nov 2015, 20:45 Firstly, I would like to bring to notice here that this question is not a 'Strengthen' question but a 'Must be true/Inference' one. The tag to should be reconsidered if this makes sense. I happened to see this question yesterday on my GMAT Prep Exam Pack-1; i am happy to have gotten this correct there. However, the one i saw on my test had a different choice at option D. Now, what made me think about this Strengthen/Inference difference in this question was that option. Here's the question: Attachment: Whales.png [ 35.93 KiB | Viewed 3008 times ] Initially, i picked option D. I think that's an strengthener (though its no 100% consistent with one of the premises, it helps the conclusion). But soon realized that this question asks us to believe the argument ans asks us to validate the options (and not the opposite), and i chose A. I have never seen (or at least noticed) any CR question with wrong answer that tests this. I need expert's comments on this strengthener vs inference thing. Is my above reasoning correct? _________________ One Kudos for an everlasting piece of knowledge is not a bad deal at all... ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things you didn't do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover. -Mark Twain Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor Joined: 16 Oct 2010 Posts: 6581 Location: Pune, India Followers: 1795 Kudos [?]: 10799 [0], given: 211 Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Nov 2015, 21:41 Expert's post arhumsid wrote: Firstly, I would like to bring to notice here that this question is not a 'Strengthen' question but a 'Must be true/Inference' one. The tag to should be reconsidered if this makes sense. I happened to see this question yesterday on my GMAT Prep Exam Pack-1; i am happy to have gotten this correct there. However, the one i saw on my test had a different choice at option D. Now, what made me think about this Strengthen/Inference difference in this question was that option. Here's the question: Attachment: Whales.png Initially, i picked option D. I think that's an strengthener (though its no 100% consistent with one of the premises, it helps the conclusion). But soon realized that this question asks us to believe the argument ans asks us to validate the options (and not the opposite), and i chose A. I have never seen (or at least noticed) any CR question with wrong answer that tests this. I need expert's comments on this strengthener vs inference thing. Is my above reasoning correct? This is an inference question - Which of the following is supported by the information given? So the argument supports one of the options. So the correct option provides the conclusion. Option (A) provides the conclusion. A strengthen question would be framed something like this: Which of the following best supports the argument/author's position etc? So here you are looking for a strengthener. _________________ Karishma Veritas Prep | GMAT Instructor My Blog Get started with Veritas Prep GMAT On Demand for$199

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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2015, 21:59
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
arhumsid wrote:
Firstly, I would like to bring to notice here that this question is not a 'Strengthen' question but a 'Must be true/Inference' one. The tag to should be reconsidered if this makes sense.

I happened to see this question yesterday on my GMAT Prep Exam Pack-1; i am happy to have gotten this correct there. However, the one i saw on my test had a different choice at option D. Now, what made me think about this Strengthen/Inference difference in this question was that option. Here's the question:
Attachment:
Whales.png

Initially, i picked option D. I think that's an strengthener (though its no 100% consistent with one of the premises, it helps the conclusion). But soon realized that this question asks us to believe the argument ans asks us to validate the options (and not the opposite), and i chose A.

I have never seen (or at least noticed) any CR question with wrong answer that tests this.

I need expert's comments on this strengthener vs inference thing. Is my above reasoning correct?

This is an inference question - Which of the following is supported by the information given?
So the argument supports one of the options. So the correct option provides the conclusion.
Option (A) provides the conclusion.

A strengthen question would be framed something like this: Which of the following best supports the argument/author's position etc?
So here you are looking for a strengthener.

Hey Thanks Karishma for the reply! Im sorry i did not convey my query properly.

So, this question we are discussing about is an Inference question.
Now, in the snapshot that i have pasted, if we change the question stem to- "Which of the following best supports the argument" (asking for a strengthener), would the correct answer be D?? (please refer to the attachment)

-Thanks
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Re: Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 08:33
Just a correction if i may add: In this entire CR, i think we perhaps did not notice that the Question as tagged (Strengthen) is actually an inference/must be true type.
CR types, recognition matter to the extent that since it is an inference Question, any information outside the passage can be rejected. Hence options B,C,D & E all are either too extreme or outside the given information.
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Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2016, 12:26
It is interesting to use timeline to solve such problems.
B is weaken and E is irrelevant
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Whales originated in the freshwater lakes and rivers of   [#permalink] 15 Feb 2016, 12:26
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