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When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce

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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce [#permalink] New post 31 May 2012, 23:07
In the first sight, I do not know how to choose the right answer. I choose randomly between C and B.
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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce [#permalink] New post 02 Jun 2012, 09:19
I got B and i think it is the OA.
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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce [#permalink] New post 07 Jun 2012, 00:31
Here it is assumed that companies are more interested in serving the customers than for the profits. The main aim of the arguement is to provide customers with affordable products that use the patented technology.

(A) Companies cannot find legal ways to produce technology similar to patented technology. - Already mentioned in the argument that companies with patents do not allow others to produce the technology. Though there is a way, they restrict the mass production by other manufacturers. - Incorrect
(B) Companies have an obligation to act in the best interest of the consumer. - The thought of allowing other manufacturers to produce patented technology shows that companies are obligated to act in the best interest of the consumers. - Correct
(C) Too many patents are granted to companies that are unwilling to share them. - No where mentioned in the arguement - Incorrect
(D) The consumer can tell the difference between patented technology and inferior imitations. - Out of scope - Incorrect
(E) Consumers care more about price than about quality - The arguement presents the manufacturers perspective rather than the consumer behavior - Irrelevant - Incorrect
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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2013, 06:14
nitya34 wrote:
When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce patented technology, the consumer invariably loses. The company that holds the patent can charge exorbitant prices because there is no direct competition. When the patent expires, other companies are free to manufacture the technology and prices fall. Companies should therefore allow other manufacturers to license patented technology.

The argument above presupposes which of the following?

(A) Companies cannot find legal ways to produce technology similar to patented technology.
(B) Companies have an obligation to act in the best interest of the consumer.
(C) Too many patents are granted to companies that are unwilling to share them.
(D) The consumer can tell the difference between patented technology and inferior imitations.
(E) Consumers care more about price than about quality.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


Premise-The company which hold the patents causes the price hike, by not allowing other companies to manufacture patented technology.
Conclusion-Companies should allow other manufacturers to seek license to manufacture the patented technology.
(if they do so then the Price would not hike and the customers would not suffer)


(B) wins
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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2013, 19:05
i have chosen 'A', but answer is no doubt 'B',
sidhu your explanation was good, finally i got: "Why not A"

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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce [#permalink] New post 30 Jan 2013, 02:59
If you negate A, the conclusion that falls apart would be that prices shoot up. ( alternatives will ensure that prices not shoot up and fair price maintained.)
But this is not the conclusion. this argument doesnt talk about price mechanism. It talks about consumer suffering because of patents.
A, as an assumption supports this conclusion as well but not directly compared to B. hence B is better choice. Always choose option that "directly"
or more closely addresses the real conclusion/theme of the argument.

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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce [#permalink] New post 09 Feb 2013, 18:55
This is a REALLY tricky question. All five answers can be supported. The real question is, what is "the argument"?

When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce patented technology, the consumer invariably loses.
This statement is highly questionable. For example, Apple Inc. does not allow its competitors to produce i-Phones and i-Pads, and it does charge exorbitant prices. Yet we cannot say that the consumers necessarily lose, because consumers also care about quality. Thus, in a sense, this statement presupposes E (consumers care more about price than about quality).

In fact, the very existence of the system of patenting suggests that patents are good for the consumer. If the patent system did not allow Apple to charge exorbitant prices, there would, arguably, be no i-Pods and no i-Phones. Patents incentivise companies to innovate so they can later charge exorbitant prices.

The company that holds the patent can charge exorbitant prices because there is no direct competition.
This statement is highly questionable. McDonald's is the only one producing Big Mac's, and there is no direct competition, but there is indirect competition (other hamburgers ;-)). Thus, McDonald's cannot charge exorbitant prices.

This statement thus presupposes A and D. If other companies could produce similar unpatented technology, the company in question would not be able to charge exorbitant prices. For example, companies other than Apple can produce other smartphones, and the price for i-Phones will necessarily keep going down because of that. However, if you know the story with the patent that Singer used for his sewing machine, you would see how carefully designed patents actually allow the company to charge exorbitant prices for much longer. Thus, here (A) is clearly an assumption. The same can be said about (D): if the consumers cannot tell the difference between patented technology and inferior imitations, patenting company would not be able to charge exorbitant prices.

When the patent expires, other companies are free to manufacture the technology and prices fall.
This is just common sense; no assumptions.

Companies should therefore allow other manufacturers to license patented technology.
Note the "therefore". In reality, this is a completely ridiculous conclusion. Try to tell Apple they they should license their i-Phones so others can produce them. Why?! Well, (B) offers a nice explanation: because companies should act in the best interest of the consumer.

In a sense, (C) can also be considered an assumption. From a practical point of view, if there is no problem, then there is nothing to argue about. Thus, if this issue was raised, then, chances are, somebody thinks that too many patents are granted to selfish companies. However, "too many" is highly subjective, and thus looks like a poor answer.



Overall, I support (B). This is because (A), (D), (E) are assumptions underlying the premises, but only (B) is an assumption underlying the actual argument, the actual inference. If it is given that the company that holds the patent can charge exorbitant prices, then (A) is no longer an assumption.

I think the point is to distinguish, which assumptions are needed for the premises vs. which assumptions are needed for the implication. For example, if you negate (A) and add it to the premises, you get a contradiction. If you add (B) to the premises, it strengthens the implication; if you add not (B) to the argument, it weakens the implication. Note that if you add (C) to the premises, it somewhat strengthens the argument, and if you add not (C) to the premises, it somewhat weakens the argument, but not as obviously as with (B).

In a sense, (C) suggests (B); but (B) is more explicit.
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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 06:57
I guess this question generated a lot of discussion! When evaluating answer choice A, it's important to understand that, when the stem says the "consumer invariably loses" if companies don't share patents, that is a *premise* of the argument - it's a fact, and cannot be wrong. So whether other companies are able to imitate patented technology makes no difference; the premise that consumers will lose must still be true. Answer A is just a trap answer; it is only tempting if you're trying to disprove one of the premises of the argument, and you are always doing something wrong if you're trying to attack a premise in a CR assumption or weaken question.

The argument essentially says: "Companies with exclusive patents charge high prices. So companies should share their patents." There's a massive gap in that argument - *why* should companies share patents? We're assuming there's something wrong with companies charging high prices. That is why B is the right answer.
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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce [#permalink] New post 22 Aug 2013, 22:24
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nitya34 wrote:
When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce patented technology, the consumer invariably loses. The company that holds the patent can charge exorbitant prices because there is no direct competition. When the patent expires, other companies are free to manufacture the technology and prices fall. Companies should therefore allow other manufacturers to license patented technology.

The argument above presupposes which of the following?

(A) Companies cannot find legal ways to produce technology similar to patented technology.
(B) Companies have an obligation to act in the best interest of the consumer.
(C) Too many patents are granted to companies that are unwilling to share them.
(D) The consumer can tell the difference between patented technology and inferior imitations.
(E) Consumers care more about price than about quality.

[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
B


Responding to a pm: Use of Assumption Negation Technique (ANT) here.
The point of ANT is that you negate the option and see if the conclusion can hold. If it can hold then the option is not an assumption. If the conclusion cannot hold on negating the option, then the option must be an assumption. Since the doubt is between A and B, I will handle these two options.

Conclusion: Companies should allow others to produce patented tech so that consumers don't lose.

(A) Companies cannot find legal ways to produce technology similar to patented technology.
Negate: Companies can find legal ways to produce technology similar to patented tech.
Can our conclusion still hold? Can we say that companies should allow others to produce patented tech so that consumers don't lose? Sure, it can still hold. Even if other companies can find legal ways to produce similar tech, the original tech may be far better. Also, the legal methods may be much more expensive so customers may still suffer, we don't know. Point is, companies should allow others to produce patented tech because the consumers may suffer otherwise. The conclusion CAN still hold.

(B) Companies have an obligation to act in the best interest of the consumer.
Negate: Companies do not have an obligation to act in the best interest of the consumer.
Now can our conclusion hold? Can we say that companies should allow others to produce patented tech so that consumers don't lose? No. Companies have no obligations to the consumer. They don't care about the best interest of the consumer. This means they don't need to allow other companies to produce patented tech because they anyway don't care about consumer interests. Hence our conclusion cannot hold.

Answer (B)
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Re: When a company refuses to allow other companies to produce   [#permalink] 22 Aug 2013, 22:24
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