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When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the

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When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink] New post 09 Feb 2008, 14:07
When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, he began a ten-year
battle to win recognition from the Pullman Company, the
largest private employer of Black people in the United
(5) States and the company that controlled the railroad
industry's sleeping car and parlor service. In 1935 the
Brotherhood became the first Black union recognized by a
major corporation. Randolph's efforts in the battle helped
transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and
(10) toward themselves as an identifiable group; eventually,
Randolph helped to weaken organized labor's antagonism
toward Black workers.
In the Pullman contest Randolph faced formidable
obstacles. The first was Black workers' understandable
( 15) skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred
Black workers from membership. An additional obstacle
was the union that Pullman itself had formed, which
weakened support among Black workers for an
independent entity.
(20) The Brotherhood possessed a number of advantages,
however, including Randolph's own tactical abilities. In
1928 he took the bold step of threatening a strike against
Pullman. Such a threat, on a national scale, under Black
leadership, helped replace the stereotype of the Black
(25)worker as servant with the image of the Black worker as
wage earner. In addition, the porters' very isolation aided
the Brotherhood. Porters were scattered throughout the
country, sleeping in dormitories in Black communities;
their segregated life protected the union's internal
(30) communications from interception. That the porters were a
homogeneous group working for a single employer with
single labor policy, thus sharing the same grievances from
city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encour-
aged racial identity and solidarity as well. But it was only
(35) in the early 1930's that federal legislation prohibiting a
company from maintaining its own unions with company
money eventually allowed the Brotherhood to become
recognized as the porters' representative.
Not content with this triumph, Randolph brought the
(40) Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor, where
it became the equal of the Federation's 105 other unions.
He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood
would be in a better position to exert pressure on member
unions that practiced race restrictions. Such restrictions
were eventually found unconstitutional in 1944.

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1. According to the passage, by 1935 the skepticism of Black workers toward unions was

A unchanged except among Black employees of railroad-related industries.
B reinforced by the actions of the Pullman Company's union
C mitigated by the efforts of Randolph
D weakened by the opening up of many unions to Black workers.
E largely alleviated because of the policies of the American Federation of Labor.


2. In using the word "understandable" (line 14), the author most clearly conveys

A sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union.
B concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable
C ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920's.
D appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920's toward unions.
E regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters to the Pullman Company's own union?

A Few porters ever joined this union.
B Some porters supported this union before 1935.
C Porters, more than other Pullman employees, enthusiastically supported this union.
D The porters' response was most positive after 1935.
E The porters' response was unaffected by the general skepticism of Black workers concerning unions.

4. The passage suggests that if the grievances of porters in one part of the United States had been different from those of porters in another part of the country, which of the following would have been the case?

A It would have been more difficult for the Pullman Company to have had a single labor policy.
B It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to control its channels of communication.
C It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to uild its membership.
D It would have been easier for the Pullman Company's union to attract membership.
E It would have been easier for the Brotherhood to threaten strikes.


5. The passage suggests that in the 1920's a company in the United States was able to

A use its own funds to set up a union
B require its employees to join the company's own union
C develop a single labor policy for all its employees with little employee dissent.
D pressure its employees to contribute money to maintain the company's own union
E use its resources to prevent the passage of federal legislation that would have facilitated the formation of independent unions.

6. The passage supplies information concerning which of the following matters related to Randolph?

A The steps he took to initiate the founding of the Brotherhood
B His motivation for bringing the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor
C The influence he had on the passage of legislation overturning race restrictions in 1944
D The influence he had on the passage of legislation to bar companies from financing their own unions
E The success he and the Brotherhood had in influencing the policies of the other unions in the American Federation of Labor
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Re: RC-black workers [#permalink] New post 09 Feb 2008, 20:52
1
This post received
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1.C 2.E 3.A 4.C 5.A 6.B

1. According to the passage, by 1935 the skepticism of Black workers toward unions was
C mitigated by the efforts of Randolph
>> Randolph's efforts in the battle helped transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and toward themselves as an identifiable group.

2. In using the word "understandable" (line 14), the author most clearly conveys
E regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers.
>>The first was Black workers' understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters to the Pullman Company's own union?
A Few porters ever joined this union.
>>The first was Black workers' understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership.

4. The passage suggests that if the grievances of porters in one part of the United States had been different from those of porters in another part of the country, which of the following would have been the case?
C It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to build its membership.
>>sharing the same grievances from city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well.

5. The passage suggests that in the 1920's a company in the United States was able to
A use its own funds to set up a union
>> in the early 1930's that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions with company money

6. The passage supplies information concerning which of the following matters related to Randolph?

A The steps he took to initiate the founding of the Brotherhood
Nowhere talked about the steps to initiate rather obstacles he faced
B His motivation for bringing the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor
>>Randolph brought the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor, where it became the equal of the Federation's 105 other unions. He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood would be in a better position to exert pressure on member unions that practiced race restrictions
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Re: RC-black workers [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2008, 06:19
OA:D,A,E,B,C,E

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Re: RC-black workers [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2008, 11:24
how sure are you about these answers ?
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Re: RC-black workers [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2008, 12:03
This is from an old paper test. Hard one
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Re: RC-black workers [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2008, 20:20
Hmmm... That's a blow ...

I don't agree with all the OAs and here is my reasoning, eagerly waiting for experts' comments:

1. According to the passage, by 1935 the skepticism of Black workers toward unions was:
OA: D weakened by the opening up of many unions to Black workers.

In 1935 the Brotherhood became the first Black union recognized by a major corporation. Randolph's efforts in the battle helped transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and toward themselves as an identifiable group;

He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood would be in a better position to exert pressure on member unions that practiced race restrictions. Such restrictions were eventually found unconstitutional in 1944.

Last sentences clearly state that until 1944 unions practiced race restrictions. HOW can we say that skepticism of Black workers toward unions was weakened by the opening up of many unions to Black workers. Which unions opened the doors for black workers before 1935. This way only Randolph that made this change happen.

2: OK! Even I was thinking no to opt for such a strong opinion as Regret.
But still A to be the OA .....
understandability is about the skepticism of black workers towards unions and not about the brotherhood.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters to the Pullman Company's own union?
OA: E The porters' response was unaffected by the general skepticism of Black workers concerning unions.

Who are porters': (1) black workers (2) workers with black workers as majority (3) workers with non-black workers as majority
Porters were scattered throughout the country, sleeping in dormitories in Black communities;
I can not justify (1) and (3) from the passage but at least (2) from the passage.
OA could be right if majority of the workers were non-black workers then we would say that non-black workers' response was unaffected by the general skepticism of Black workers concerning unions. But if porters' are dominated by black workers then how this can be OA.

>>The first was Black workers' understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership.

This clearly states that porter's were barred from union membership therefore Few porters ever joined this union. Few because some porter's could be non-black who joined unions.

4. The passage suggests that if the grievances of porters in one part of the United States had been different from those of porters in another part of the country, which of the following would have been the case?
OA: B It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to control its channels of communication.

Yes, this was a tempting answer and on first go, I opted for B but then I had a deep look and found it irrelevant to the question. Passage states that physical scattering through various cities helped porters' to control their communication and not because they had the same grievances from city to city. It is absurd to say that because porters' had the same grievances from city to city therefore they were able to protect their communication channel.

>>sharing the same grievances from city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well.

We can see because porters' had the same grievances from city to city that strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well. So we can conclude that if porters' did not have the same grievances from city to city
It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to build its membership.

5. The passage suggests that in the 1920's a company in the United States was able to
OA: C develop a single labor policy for all its employees with little employee dissent.

First of all there is no mention if single labor policy was implemented by any company in 1920. Only thing mentioned is about 1928 that Pullman Company had a single labor policy. With this information we can not conclude if companies were doing so in 1920 too. Second problem with this answer is "with little employee dissent", there is no mention at all about this.

>> in the early 1930's that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions with company money
Therefore we can conclude that before 1930 companies were able to maintain its own unions with their own money and Pullman Company was doing the same.

6. The passage supplies information concerning which of the following matters related to Randolph?
OA: E The success he and the Brotherhood had in influencing the policies of the other unions in the American Federation of Labor

May be I mis-interpreted motivation for intentions.

Randolph brought the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor, where it became the equal of the Federation's 105 other unions. He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood would be in a better position to exert pressure on member unions that practiced race restrictions. Such restrictions were eventually found unconstitutional in 1944.

But to be honest, I'm still not happy with the OA. If Randolph was the successful to influence other unions' policy is far fetched conclusion. My feel is still with B.
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Re: RC-black workers [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2008, 16:41
terp26 wrote:
This is from an old paper test. Hard one

If you have the OAs, can you post them?
I want to reconfirm.

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Re: RC-black workers [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2008, 16:46
ontheway wrote:
Hmmm... That's a blow ...

I don't agree with all the OAs and here is my reasoning, eagerly waiting for experts' comments:

1. According to the passage, by 1935 the skepticism of Black workers toward unions was:
OA: D weakened by the opening up of many unions to Black workers.

In 1935 the Brotherhood became the first Black union recognized by a major corporation. Randolph's efforts in the battle helped transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and toward themselves as an identifiable group;

He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood would be in a better position to exert pressure on member unions that practiced race restrictions. Such restrictions were eventually found unconstitutional in 1944.

Last sentences clearly state that until 1944 unions practiced race restrictions. HOW can we say that skepticism of Black workers toward unions was weakened by the opening up of many unions to Black workers. Which unions opened the doors for black workers before 1935. This way only Randolph that made this change happen.

2: OK! Even I was thinking no to opt for such a strong opinion as Regret.
But still A to be the OA .....
understandability is about the skepticism of black workers towards unions and not about the brotherhood.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters to the Pullman Company's own union?
OA: E The porters' response was unaffected by the general skepticism of Black workers concerning unions.

Who are porters': (1) black workers (2) workers with black workers as majority (3) workers with non-black workers as majority
Porters were scattered throughout the country, sleeping in dormitories in Black communities;
I can not justify (1) and (3) from the passage but at least (2) from the passage.
OA could be right if majority of the workers were non-black workers then we would say that non-black workers' response was unaffected by the general skepticism of Black workers concerning unions. But if porters' are dominated by black workers then how this can be OA.

>>The first was Black workers' understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership.

This clearly states that porter's were barred from union membership therefore Few porters ever joined this union. Few because some porter's could be non-black who joined unions.

4. The passage suggests that if the grievances of porters in one part of the United States had been different from those of porters in another part of the country, which of the following would have been the case?
OA: B It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to control its channels of communication.

Yes, this was a tempting answer and on first go, I opted for B but then I had a deep look and found it irrelevant to the question. Passage states that physical scattering through various cities helped porters' to control their communication and not because they had the same grievances from city to city. It is absurd to say that because porters' had the same grievances from city to city therefore they were able to protect their communication channel.

>>sharing the same grievances from city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well.

We can see because porters' had the same grievances from city to city that strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well. So we can conclude that if porters' did not have the same grievances from city to city
It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to build its membership.

5. The passage suggests that in the 1920's a company in the United States was able to
OA: C develop a single labor policy for all its employees with little employee dissent.

First of all there is no mention if single labor policy was implemented by any company in 1920. Only thing mentioned is about 1928 that Pullman Company had a single labor policy. With this information we can not conclude if companies were doing so in 1920 too. Second problem with this answer is "with little employee dissent", there is no mention at all about this.

>> in the early 1930's that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions with company money
Therefore we can conclude that before 1930 companies were able to maintain its own unions with their own money and Pullman Company was doing the same.

6. The passage supplies information concerning which of the following matters related to Randolph?
OA: E The success he and the Brotherhood had in influencing the policies of the other unions in the American Federation of Labor

May be I mis-interpreted motivation for intentions.

Randolph brought the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor, where it became the equal of the Federation's 105 other unions. He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood would be in a better position to exert pressure on member unions that practiced race restrictions. Such restrictions were eventually found unconstitutional in 1944.

But to be honest, I'm still not happy with the OA. If Randolph was the successful to influence other unions' policy is far fetched conclusion. My feel is still with B.


ontheway,
I have a general note for some of the RCs that I have been posting recently:
The RCs seem suspect,especially since all of us are getting incorrect answers.
I would suggest ,let us not take any cue from these passages, but just practice them for the sake of it.
Questionable practice resources are never a real indicator anyway.

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Re: RC-black workers [#permalink] New post 13 Feb 2008, 10:56
These are REAL GMAT questions from an old paper test so they have to be legit. This is from test code 31.

Looks like the OA's posted differ from these.

OA's:

1 C
2 D
3 B
4 C
5 A
6 B
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Re: RC-black workers [#permalink] New post 13 Feb 2008, 18:29
what I meant was the OAs are suspect.
your answers seems to be much more reasonable than mine.

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink] New post 08 Mar 2013, 12:53
2. In using the word "understandable" (line 14), the author most clearly conveys

A sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union.
B concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable
C ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920's.
D appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920's toward unions.
E regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers.

Can someone please explain the OA for this question. In my opinion the answer should've been C or E. But the OA is D.
How can understandable convey appreciation of the attitude of many black workers...
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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink] New post 10 Mar 2013, 08:17
StrivingTurtle wrote:
2. In using the word "understandable" (line 14), the author most clearly conveys

A sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union.
B concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable
C ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920's.
D appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920's toward unions.
E regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers.

Can someone please explain the OA for this question. In my opinion the answer should've been C or E. But the OA is D.
How can understandable convey appreciation of the attitude of many black workers...



I also wonder how the word "appreciation" in option D is correct use. It conveys the idea of "deplorable""
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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink] New post 11 Mar 2013, 00:01
StrivingTurtle wrote:
2. In using the word "understandable" (line 14), the author most clearly conveys

A sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union.
B concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable
C ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920's.
D appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920's toward unions.
E regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers.

Can someone please explain the OA for this question. In my opinion the answer should've been C or E. But the OA is D.
How can understandable convey appreciation of the attitude of many black workers...


Hi Turtle, Let me see if I can help....

Here is the whole sentence:

The first was Black workers' understandable( 15) skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership.

This sentence is talking about black workers were SKEPTICAL of the unions because of HISTORIC reasons. And our author is saying that is UNDERSTANDABLE.

So... Answer D, is in my eyes correct. Because it says that the author APPRECIATES (another word for UNDERSTANDS) the attitude of black workers.


The question is a tricky one, because this sentence is saying something very differnt to the section preceeding it, which talks about the fight for recognition, and the attitudes of the unions and employers. We need to ignore this and just focus on the specific section in hand...

Hope that helps...

James

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink] New post 11 Mar 2013, 00:40
hmm.. I see the connection now.

Honestly, If I get something like this in the real exam, I am sure I will fumble.

I would always think of appreciate as "to praise" or something of that sort with positive connotations. It is hard to make this connection, especially when you don't have a of contextual support. (read: when the sentence is short such as the one mentioned in the answer choice!!)

Thanks Plumber !!

:)
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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink] New post 16 Mar 2013, 11:40
D
E
b
b
c
c

I hope to see the OA's soon

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Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the   [#permalink] 16 Mar 2013, 11:40
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