Whenever a company loses a major product-liability
lawsuit, the value of the companyтАЩs stocks falls
significantly within hours after the announcement. Cotoy
has long been involved in a major product-liability
lawsuit, and its stocks fell significantly in value today.
Therefore, we can be sure that an unfavorable judgment
against Cotoy in that lawsuit was announced earlier
Which one of the following contains flawed reasoning
that most closely parallels that in the argument above?
(A) Whenever a business treats its customers
discourteously, its customers begin to shop
elsewhere. Shopwell wants to keep all of its
customers; therefore, its employees will never
treat customers discourteously.
(B) Whenever the large airlines decrease fares, the
financial stability of smaller competing airlines
is adversely affected. Therefore, the smaller
competing airlinesтАЩ financial stability must be
seriously threatened when the large airlines
announce a large price decrease.
(C) Whenever a country shows a lack of leadership
on international issues, respect for the countryтАЩs
policies begins to decline. Therefore, to gain
respect for its policies, a country should show
leadership on international issues.
(D) Whenever an entering student at Cashman
College wins the Performance Fellowship, he or
she receives $10,000. Therefore, Eula, a student
who has enrolled at Cashman, must have won
the Performance Fellowship, because she just
received $10,000 from the college.
(E) Whenever a company advertises its products
effectively, the companyтАЩs sales increase.
OrocoтАЩs sales have not increased; therefore, it is
likely that the company did not advertise its