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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly [#permalink] New post 31 Mar 2012, 04:45
A for me........

there are two parts after although clause which should give negative aspects and should be parallel.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly [#permalink] New post 17 Apr 2013, 22:23
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Their cannot logically refer to anything other than fertilisers; it cannot denote productivity, becos productivity is singular and their is plural; it cannot point to parts of the world,as no one can materially increase parts of the world and leave alone use them to create problems
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly [#permalink] New post 31 Jul 2013, 02:28
Can someone explain why option C and D is incorrect! Thanks
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly [#permalink] New post 31 Jul 2013, 08:13
B and E out because of Like.

D While if is incorrect

C - grammatically correct but it is too wordy where A says the same very concisely.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly [#permalink] New post 31 Jul 2013, 16:19
fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain why option C and D is incorrect! Thanks


Hi fozzy.

Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
Correct. The use of "their" is quite ambiguous, so I don't think this sentence sounds smoothly. A, however is the best among all options.

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
Wrong.
- "like" is incorrect, like = similar to. However, wee need examples here, thus "such as" is appropriate.
- We're talking about "fertilizers" (plural) ==> "it" is wrong.

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
Wrong.
- Parallelism: The structure of C is: whereas the use of X has greatly expanded........, if X are used, and if ......
==> in order to make a sentence parallel, the structure should be: whereas the use of X greatly expanded......, in increase in their use.......
==> "the use of X" || "their use"
- Meaning: "an increase in the use of synthetic fertilizers" DIFFERS from "the fertilizers are used increasingly"
For example:
(1) The increase in the use of computers ==> computers become more popular, so many people use them. (horizontal)
(2) The Computers are used increasingly ==> These particular computers are exploited (vertical)

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
Wrong.
- Modifier problem: "if substituted for more ..., this substitution may accelerate .........." Verb-ed modifier + COMMA ==> ALWAYS modify subject. The subject of the second part is "this substitution" ==> The meaning will be: if substitution are substituted for more...... ==> Does not make sense at all.
- "While" is subordinating conjunction ==> does not match the overall meaning of the structure. Coordinating conjunction "and" is more appropriate.

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
Wrong.
- "like" is wrong ==> "such as" should be correct.
- "while" changes meaning. ==> "and" should be correct

Hope it helps.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly [#permalink] New post 11 Aug 2013, 23:13
The word THEIR in Option A makes it the correct answer.

B & E are out for us of LIKE and other reasons as discussed.

If you compare A with C & D-
The usage of COMMA + AND rule (,and) makes A the winner. When you have two clauses separated by a Comma you must have a subject in each one the clauses. By intrpcuding THEIR (subject pronoun for Fertilizers) A makes it clear what we are talking about.

Earl walked to school, and HE later ate his lunch (CORRECT)
Earl walked to school, and later ate his lunch (WRONG- since HE is missing).


C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they (what is IF used as substitution)
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution (what is if substitued)
Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly   [#permalink] 11 Aug 2013, 23:13
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