Which of the following best completes the passage below? One : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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Which of the following best completes the passage below? One

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Which of the following best completes the passage below? One [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2007, 17:45
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Which of the following best completes the passage below?

One tax-reform proposal that has gained increasing support in recent years is the flat tax, which would impose a uniform tax rate on incomes at every level. Opponents of the flat tax say that a progressive tax system, which levies a higher rate of taxes on higher-income taxpayers, is fairer, placing the greater burden on those better able to bear it. However, the present crazy quilt of tax deductions, exemptions, credits, and loopholes benefits primarily the high-income taxpayer, who is consequently able to reduce his or her effective tax rate, often to a level below that paid by the lower-income taxpayer. Therefore, ______

(A) higher-income taxpayers are likely to lend their support to the flat-tax proposal now being considered by Congress
(B) a flat-tax system that allowed no deductions or exemptions would substantially increase actual government revenues
(C) the lower-income taxpayer might well be penalized by the institution of a flat-tax system in this country
(D) the progressive nature of our present tax system is more illusory than real
(E) the flat tax would actually be fairer to the lower-income taxpayer than any progressive tax system could be

The earthâ€™s resources are being depleted much too fast. To correct this, the United States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many years to come.

The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Per capita resource consumption in the United States is at an all-time high.
(B) The United States wastes resources.
(C) The United States uses more resources than any other country.
(D) The United States imports most of the resources it uses.
(E) Curbing U.S. resource consumption will significantly retard world resource depletion.

In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.
Each of the following is an assumption made in the argument above EXCEPT:

(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry.
(B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air.
(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London.
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area.

The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls disproportionately on the trucking industry. Trucks represent only about 10 percent of the vehicles on U.S. roads. Yet road use taxes assessed on trucks amount to almost half the taxes paid for highway upkeep and repair.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?
(A) The trucking industry has enjoyed record after-tax profits in three of the past four years.
(B) Because of their weight, trucks cause over 50 percent of the damage sustained by highway surfaces each year.
(C) Without an economically viable trucking industry, the cost of goods in the United States would rise significantly.
(D) Road use taxes paid by trucking companies have decreased by 3 percent over the past five years.
(E) Due to years of neglect, U.S. highways today are badly in need of major repairs and rebuilding.

The upcoming presidential election in the West African republic of Ganelon is of grave concern to the U.S. State Department. Ganelon presently has strong political and military ties to the United States. However, the Socialist party is widely expected to win the election, leading to fears that Ganelon will soon break away from the pro-American bloc and adopt a nonaligned or openly anti-American stance.

Which of the following is an assumption made in the passage above?

(A) A Socialist party government in Ganelon is more likely to oppose the United States than is a non-Socialist party government.
(B) The people of the United States recognize their nationâ€™s interest in the political stability of West Africa.
(C) A weakening of U.S. political ties with Ganelon could have serious consequences for U.S. relations with other African nations.
(D) The Socialist party leaders in Ganelon believe that their nationâ€™s interests would best be served by an alliance with anti-American forces.
(E) The Socialist party will win the upcoming election in Ganelon.

As an experienced labor organizer and the former head of one of the nationâ€™s most powerful labor unions, Grayson is an excellent choice to chair the new council on business-labor relations.
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above?
(A) The new council must have the support of the nationâ€™s labor leaders if it is to succeed.
(B) During his years as a labor leader, Grayson established a record of good relations with business leaders.
(C) The chair of the new council must be a person who can communicate directly with the leaders of the nationâ€™s largest labor unions.
(D) Most of the other members of the new council will be representatives of business management interests.
(E) An understanding of the needs and problems of labor is the only qualification necessary for the job of chairing the new council.

In the effort to fire a Civil Service employee, his or her manager may have to spend up to $100,000 of tax money. Since Civil Service employees know how hard it is to fire them, they tend to loaf. This explains in large part why the government is so inefficient. It can be properly inferred on the basis of the statements above that the author believes which of the following? I. Too much job security can have a negative influence on workers. II. More government workers should be fired. III.Most government workers are Civil Service employees. (A) I only (B) I and III only (C) II only (D) I, II, and III (E) III only If you have any questions you can ask an expert New! Director Joined: 03 Sep 2006 Posts: 879 Followers: 6 Kudos [?]: 772 [0], given: 33 Please Anyone! [#permalink] Show Tags 04 Apr 2007, 23:07 Could anyone please reply back with the explanations for these CR questions? GMAT Club Legend Joined: 07 Jul 2004 Posts: 5062 Location: Singapore Followers: 30 Kudos [?]: 358 [0], given: 0 Show Tags 05 Apr 2007, 00:30 In the effort to fire a Civil Service employee, his or her manager may have to spend up to$100,000 of tax money. Since Civil Service employees know how hard it is to fire them, they tend to loaf.
This explains in large part why the government is so inefficient.

It can be properly inferred on the basis of the statements above that the author believes which of the following?

I. Too much job security can have a negative influence on workers.
II. More government workers should be fired.
III.Most government workers are Civil Service employees.

(A) I only
(B) I and III only
(C) II only
(D) I, II, and III
(E) III only

1 -> job security = 'hard to fire', negative influence = 'tend to loaf'

3 -> civil service workers tend to loaf and this is the main reason government is inefficient. So the author must be led to believe most of the workers in the government are civil service workers.

Ans B
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05 Apr 2007, 00:33
As an experienced labor organizer and the former head of one of the nationâ€™s most powerful labor unions, Grayson is an excellent choice to chair the new council on business-labor relations.

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion above?

I like to go with E for this one. The only pre-requisite for the post would be an understanding of the needs and problems of labor, which makes Grayson an excellent choice. Whether he is good at tending to business-labor relations is a seperate matter by itself. (B cuts a close call, but having a good record of relations with business leaders does not mean relations between business and labor will be good)
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05 Apr 2007, 00:36
The upcoming presidential election in the West African republic of Ganelon is of grave concern to the U.S. State Department.

Ganelon presently has strong political and military ties to the United States.
However, the Socialist party is widely expected to win the election, leading to fears that Ganelon will soon break away from the pro-American bloc and adopt a nonaligned or openly anti-American stance.

Which of the following is an assumption made in the passage above?

A is the best choice for this one. The American governement must be led to believe the socialist party will oppose the US more than a non-socialist one in order to have this concern.
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05 Apr 2007, 00:38
The burden of maintaining the U.S. highway system falls disproportionately on the trucking industry. Trucks represent only about 10 percent of the vehicles on U.S. roads. Yet road use taxes assessed on trucks amount to almost half the taxes paid for highway upkeep and repair.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?

B is the best choice. Since they cause the most damage, they should be bearing most of the cost for repair.
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05 Apr 2007, 00:40
In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.

Each of the following is an assumption made in the argument above EXCEPT:

E is not an assumption.
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05 Apr 2007, 00:42
The earthâ€™s resources are being depleted much too fast.
To correct this, the United States must keep its resource consumption at present levels for many years to come.

The argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

C is close, but it is hard to qualify that no other country uses the same amount of resoures. I'll take E for this one. If US resource will retard world resource depletion, then the conclusion stands.
05 Apr 2007, 00:42
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Which of the following best completes the passage below? One

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