Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most

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Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 00:05
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Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most logically completes the argument below?

According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training
B. even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations
C. many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations
D. after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth
E. even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2009, 03:26
Go for C.
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2009, 01:55
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tejal777 wrote:
Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most logically completes the argument below?

According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training
B. even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations
C. many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations
D. after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth
E. even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth

I think A is the answer because there must be fact other than environmental regulations that promote growth i.e higher education can lead to produce chips .

Assume producing copper will yield 1$producing wire will yield$10 producing micro chip from same material will yield \$100. Which is more enviromental consuming of course producing copper.
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2009, 02:31
A for me
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2009, 03:50
IMO A
A. shows alternative reason for economy growth in states with strictest environmetnal regulations.i.e economy growth is not caused by strictest environmetnal regulations
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2009, 07:35
crejoc wrote:
IMO A
A. shows alternative reason for economy growth in states with strictest environmetnal regulations.i.e economy growth is not caused by strictest environmetnal regulations

It has not been stated that investing in education and job training will lead to better economic growth.
We can't assume that.
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2009, 07:44
imanonymoususer wrote:
crejoc wrote:
IMO A
A. shows alternative reason for economy growth in states with strictest environmetnal regulations.i.e economy growth is not caused by strictest environmetnal regulations

It has not been stated that investing in education and job training will lead to better economic growth.
We can't assume that.

This is an alternative reason for economy growth instead of strictest environmental regulations.
In blank space questions EXTERNAL INFORMATION is allowed, otherwise , we cannot fill it up. If you look through every answer choice, each has external information that is not stated in the passage.

If you say it is not stated in the option A, it is stated in the passage itself " This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth"
option A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training

considering all these in mind try reading option A with the question This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.. it fits well
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2009, 06:17
POST THE OA
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2009, 16:19
A

I will post explanation after OA is posted.

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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2011, 13:11
What has to do education and job training with economic growth?
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2011, 13:11
And what's wrong with E?
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2011, 12:18
noboru wrote:
And what's wrong with E?

E would be correct if it were: even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced
a lot of growth

dont u think?
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Re: According to a widely held economic hypothesis [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2011, 12:36

All other options either show weak analogy or produce irrelevant information
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2014, 03:49
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This is an strengthen question because the conclusion "This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth" is in the stimulus. After all, the setup of "which of the following, if true" or of "however, since ______" indicate new information can be provided.

A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training This answer choice directly address the counterpoint, for the cause of job growth promotes growth more than the environmental regulations.

B. even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations Opposite answer - This statement actually supports the counterpoint.

C. many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations Shell game - this leads to a different conclusion - i.e. therefore, not all states consider environment regulations as a way to increase job growth. Besides, this statement is neutral - neither strengthen or weakens the conclusion.

D. after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth Opposite answer - This supports the counterpoint.

E. even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth Opposite answer - This supports the counterpoint.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2014, 07:36
As was asked before by Noburu, how can one assume

"Education and job training" associated with "Economic Growth"??????

And what is the problem with (E).?

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Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2014, 08:18
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Just to be sure, the OA is A and this question is part of GMATPrepExam Pack 1 and is an official question.

Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most logically completes the argument below?

According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

So as per the passage the strict Regulation -> More growth is observed but we need to say why the direct correlation doesn't exist.

A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training - Correct as there is no direct correlation. This is the best answer and not a perfect as we need assume some things

B. even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations
This option says there is a direct correlation between strict regulation and growth.

C. many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations
There is a direct correlation and that is the reason why many states are contemplating weakening their environmental regulations

D. after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth
Direct correlation

E. even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth
Even if we remove the strong environmental regulations, there is some growth. There is also a direct correlation as weak environmental regulation -> No strong growth.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2014, 22:08
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My 2 cents.
According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth.
General Fact-1: Strict/High ER --> Low EG [C&E]

This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth.
Contradicting Fact-2: Strictest ER -- Highest EG [mentions that 2 r present together]

This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.
Conclusion: SER !-> HEG. Why??
We can answer that by identifying an alternate factor that affect EG , during the strict ER period. Just bec 2 events r present doesn't mean that they r related.

A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training>> Correct, HEG might be the result of investment in education(HIE).
B. even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations [In a way strengthen the contradicting fact]
C. many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations. [Trying to reverse the relationship. Helps us little in identifying what we r looking for.]
D. after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth [opposite of wht we r looking for]
E. even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth [opposite of wht we r looking for]

Can someone review and confirm if i m correct in my reasoning. Also m i right in my assumption that introducing an indirect relationship between SER and HEG would strengthen the conclusion?
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Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2014, 19:45
JarvisR wrote:
My 2 cents.
According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth.
General Fact-1: Strict/High ER --> Low EG [C&E]

This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth.
Contradicting Fact-2: Strictest ER -- Highest EG [mentions that 2 r present together]

This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.
Conclusion: SER !-> HEG. Why??
We can answer that by identifying an alternate factor that affect EG , during the strict ER period. Just bec 2 events r present doesn't mean that they r related.

A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training>> Correct, HEG might be the result of investment in education(HIE).
B. even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations [In a way strengthen the contradicting fact]
C. many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations. [Trying to reverse the relationship. Helps us little in identifying what we r looking for.]
D. after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth [opposite of wht we r looking for]
E. even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth [opposite of wht we r looking for]

Can someone review and confirm if i m correct in my reasoning. Also m i right in my assumption that introducing an indirect relationship between SER and HEG would strengthen the conclusion?

Dear Student,

You are correct in your overall understanding of the passage. However, I would not call the hypothesis a general fact. The fact that this hypothesis exists is definitely a fact. I hope you understand the difference between the two.

You are quite close to the correct answer in your pre-thinking. What you are trying to say, I hope, is that just because there is a correlation between the two (they co-exist) doesn't mean that there is a cause and effect relationship between them as well. This understanding is correct to logically complete the given argument.

Regards,

Neeti.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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03 May 2015, 06:39
tejal777 wrote:
Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most logically completes the argument below?

According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training
B. even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations
C. many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations
D. after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth
E. even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth

C,D,E are irrelevant.
B is opposite.
A is correct.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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03 May 2015, 17:00
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Hypothesis: strict environmental regulations results in reduced economic growth
problem: states with strict regulations also have highest growth (no cause effect given - just note that both are present. This is called a correlation - they're present together but not necessarily connected by a cause-effect relationship.)
The fact that they're correlated doesn't mean that environmental regs cause economic growth.

So we need some reason to show that just because they're correlated doesn't mean one causes the other. One way to do this is to have some other thing that is likely to result in economic growth.

A) education and job training are likely to result in economic growth. Check.
B) this is just repeating the correlation we were already given in the argument. No new info.
C) this is out of scope - it doesn't address the idea that something else might be causing the growth instead of environmental regs
D) this would tend to reinforce the idea that environmental regs do result in economic growth. That's the opposite of what we want to show.
E) this is also out of scope - it doesn't address the idea that something else might be causing the growth instead of environmental regs
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most   [#permalink] 03 May 2015, 17:00

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