Which of the following most logically completes the : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Which of the following most logically completes the

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Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 21:31
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Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time
workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco
employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but
spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly
wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.
A. Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its
hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages
B. the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a
significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage
workers at Yorco does
C. the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is
significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech
D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done
during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech
E. the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly
wages paid at Zortech
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 22:07
my guess is B
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 22:14
goalsnr wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time
workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco
employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but
spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly
wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.
A. Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its
hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages
B. the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a
significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage
workers at Yorco does
C. the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is
significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech
D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done
during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech
E. the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly
wages paid at Zortech

It D,

both Z and Y have same number of workers = 100
Y pays more than Z. Payment is equal to (per hour wage * no of hours)
there coudl be two reasons
- Y's hourly wages are more than that of Z
- at Y people are doing overtime (working more hours than Z)

question stem provides the first reason as a must. mean second reason is not contributing.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 03:04
I fell OA is A.

Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time
workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco
employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but
spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly
wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.
A. Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its
hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages
The option says that Comany Z is spending more on other benefits than on wages whereas company Y is spending more on wages itself. This is good enuogh a reason to support the conclusion that the ourly wages are higher at Yorco .
B. the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a
significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage
workers at Yorco does
This option strengthens the opposite of what is stated . Since the skill set required at both the companies is same there is no reason whay wages at company Y should be higher.
C. the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is
significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech
The comparision is between the average wages of hourly waged workers only .
D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done
during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech
overtime is rare in both the companies. anoter factor which is same for both the companies. Hence no reason for one company to spend more than the other.
E. the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly
wages paid at Zortech
This fact is not enough to support that the average wages paid at Yorco will be higher
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 03:05
feel *
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 04:15
This question is really tricky, because we have to rule out an alternative explanation to come to the conclusion of the argument.

D makes this alternative explanation. If there were lot of overwork with higher rate then the conclusion reached by the author would not be true.

Answer is D.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 06:18
IMO D

Additional costs could occur due to

1. Employees demand more salary
2. Employees have the same salary but work additional hours and get paid more.

Since per argument we know that 1 is not a possibility, it has to be 2 which could lead to higher costs for the corporation.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 06:47
IMO , D

since money spent on wages are only affected by variations in hourly wages and one of the most probable factors affecting in hourly wages, overtime pay per hour, is being eliminated by D. hence the normal average wage must be greater at yorco.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 08:15
MamtaKrishnia wrote:
I fell OA is A.

Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time
workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco
employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but
spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly
wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.
A. Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its
hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages
The option says that Comany Z is spending more on other benefits than on wages whereas company Y is spending more on wages itself. This is good enuogh a reason to support the conclusion that the ourly wages are higher at Yorco .
B. the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a
significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage
workers at Yorco does
This option strengthens the opposite of what is stated . Since the skill set required at both the companies is same there is no reason whay wages at company Y should be higher.
C. the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is
significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech
The comparision is between the average wages of hourly waged workers only .
D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done
during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech
overtime is rare in both the companies. anoter factor which is same for both the companies. Hence no reason for one company to spend more than the other.
E. the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly
wages paid at Zortech
This fact is not enough to support that the average wages paid at Yorco will be higher

OA stands for official answer.
I know the OA is not A.So if you meant your answer is A, you should'nt be writing OA is A.
Moreover the OA is usually posted by the original poster. So please make sure your posts are not milseading (when you dont intend to post the OA but your answer.Thanks.)

Last edited by goalsnr on 10 Jul 2008, 08:46, edited 1 time in total.
VP
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 08:44
durgesh79 wrote:
goalsnr wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?
Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time
workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco
employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but
spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly
wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.
A. Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its
hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages
B. the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a
significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage
workers at Yorco does
C. the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is
significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech
D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done
during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech
E. the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly
wages paid at Zortech

It D,

both Z and Y have same number of workers = 100
Y pays more than Z. Payment is equal to (per hour wage * no of hours)
there coudl be two reasons
- Y's hourly wages are more than that of Z
- at Y people are doing overtime (working more hours than Z)

question stem provides the first reason as a must. mean second reason is not contributing.

Given : Nos of employess in Y is almost equal Nos of employess in Z = n
nos of hours worked by employees in Y =a
nos of hours worked by employees in Z= b

Hourly wage paid to employees in Y = y
Hourly wage paid to employees in Z = z

Ywage =Total wages paid by Y/per year= n * a * y
Zwage =Total wages paid by Z/per year= n * b * z

Ywage > Zwage
=> ay>bz

From this we can infer:
if a>b , y>=z
That means people at both Y and Z are atleast working same number of hours.
So a>b implies , workers in Y get paid higher than workers in Z since they have special skillsets.
I arrived at B from this conclusion.
I still can't figure out why D is the OA.

Therefore, hourly
wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.

>>>Wants us to fill in a reason why workers in Y get paid more than do people in Z. B fills in the blank.
Any thoughts?Let discuss.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 08:47
gmatnub wrote:
my guess is B

Ca you pls explain what was your reasoningbehing choosing B?
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 09:04
Hi goalsnr,
I understnd the meaning of OA.It was by mistake that i wrote 'OA'. I meant to write my answer.
sorry about that.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 09:09
goals :

with the same number of employees yearly wages for Y are more than Z --> therefore --> Y's hourly wages must be higher than Z --> since --> blank.

suppose a,b,y z are Positive numbers
ay > bz
y must be greater than z, since a = b

option D tells us that a = b.

B is a probable option but if i compare B and D. D looks better.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 11:25
durgesh79 wrote:
goals :

with the same number of employees yearly wages for Y are more than Z --> therefore --> Y's hourly wages must be higher than Z --> since --> blank.

suppose a,b,y z are Positive numbers
ay > bz
y must be greater than z, since a = b

option D tells us that a = b.

B is a probable option but if i compare B and D. D looks better.

Hmmm..still not convinced.To pick D we have to assume a=b.
Whereas B directly gives a reason why wages at Y are higher than wages at Z.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 11:42
durgesh79 wrote:
goals :

with the same number of employees yearly wages for Y are more than Z --> therefore --> Y's hourly wages must be higher than Z --> since --> blank.

suppose a,b,y z are Positive numbers
ay > bz
y must be greater than z, since a = b

option D tells us that a = b.

B is a probable option but if i compare B and D. D looks better.

In my opinion, B is not even a probable option, it has nothing at all to do with the logical argument presented in the paragraph.
The question/argument is not about the actual reasons why company z may pay its workers greater/less than company y
The question/argument is about how are we able to reach the conclusion that wages must be higher based on whats given? Looking at the argument given, there are still holes before we can reach the conclusion given, any answer choice that fills the hole = correct. In this case, D fills in the hole. Without D, the conclusion cannot be reached.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 14:57
I don't think this is a good question for this reason:

Therefore, hourly wages MUST be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.

We know as fact that there are the same number of people at each company and that Y pays more per year for the same number of people.

Example:

Y has 100 workers and pays 10,000 per year for those workers wages.

Z has 100 workers and pays 5,000 per year for those workers wages.

In order to know who makes on average more per hour we need to know how many hours they are working.

Even though Z pays less PER YEAR on the same number of workers, those workers could work less hours.

D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done
during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech

I think this strengthens the argument, but it does NOT mean that the workers at Y MUST make on average more per hour than the workers at Z.

In the above example the workers at Z could only work 10 hours per year while the workers at Y could work 100 hours. Without the average number of hours worked per year we cannot determine the average hourly wage. And none of the answers give this information.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 15:19
If both Y and Z has same number of employees then what can be causes that Y spends a lot more in wages that Z.
1) Y pays its worker more than Z pays to its workers. Thereby Y is footing more bill.
2) If both Y and Z has same hourly wages, then if employees are working longer hours as compared to employees at Z, then also Y will need to spend more time to pay that extra time.

Option 2 is negated by "D" thereby it cannot be the answer I guess.
I think E to an certain extent support the option 1 above.

IMO E.
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 16:30
abhijit_sen wrote:
If both Y and Z has same number of employees then what can be causes that Y spends a lot more in wages that Z.
1) Y pays its worker more than Z pays to its workers. Thereby Y is footing more bill.
2) If both Y and Z has same hourly wages, then if employees are working longer hours as compared to employees at Z, then also Y will need to spend more time to pay that extra time.

Option 2 is negated by "D" thereby it cannot be the answer I guess.
I think E to an certain extent support the option 1 above.

IMO E.

huh? Your reasoning makes perfect sense and is in line with others who stated D above, up until the last line 'I think E supports option 1'.

You stated that either 1 or 2 must be true if Y spends a lot more in wages than Z.
Then you go on to state that D negates 2 => meaning that to reach the conclusion that Y spends a lot more in wages than Z, 1 must be true.
1 is the conclusion in the original question, so for it to make sense, 2 needs to be negated (and is what D does).

or am I misunderstanding your argument?
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 17:59
jasonc wrote:
durgesh79 wrote:
goals :

with the same number of employees yearly wages for Y are more than Z --> therefore --> Y's hourly wages must be higher than Z --> since --> blank.

suppose a,b,y z are Positive numbers
ay > bz
y must be greater than z, since a = b

option D tells us that a = b.

B is a probable option but if i compare B and D. D looks better.

In my opinion, B is not even a probable option, it has nothing at all to do with the logical argument presented in the paragraph.
The question/argument is not about the actual reasons why company z may pay its workers greater/less than company y
The question/argument is about how are we able to reach the conclusion that wages must be higher based on whats given? Looking at the argument given, there are still holes before we can reach the conclusion given, any answer choice that fills the hole = correct. In this case, D fills in the hole. Without D, the conclusion cannot be reached.

Looking at the argument given, there are still holes before we can reach the conclusion given, any answer choice that fills the hole = correct.
>>>>Not convincing enough.
As per your logic D gives a reason for higher pay. So does B.Why doesn't B fill that hole?
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Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 20:33
jasonc wrote:
huh? Your reasoning makes perfect sense and is in line with others who stated D above, up until the last line 'I think E supports option 1'.

You stated that either 1 or 2 must be true if Y spends a lot more in wages than Z.
Then you go on to state that D negates 2 => meaning that to reach the conclusion that Y spends a lot more in wages than Z, 1 must be true.
1 is the conclusion in the original question, so for it to make sense, 2 needs to be negated (and is what D does).

or am I misunderstanding your argument?

Sorry about that confusion. It is my bad day. You are right. Answer should be D.
Re: CR - Yorco and Zortech   [#permalink] 10 Jul 2008, 20:33

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