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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

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Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact, have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2012, 14:00
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It is a really tough question.

I initially picked C but after reading other people's opinions, realized that the correct answer must be B.
My understanding is like this. Feel free to point out any flaws.

Before a newly developed internal scan, the surgery was performed unneccessarily in about 20 percent.
(We can say from this statement that of the patients who underwent this surgery, 20 percents didn't actually have Appendictis. I can assume that those unneccessary surgery were caused by misdiagnoses.)

The newly developed internal scan lowered the chance of misdiagnoses.

This newly developed internal scan enables doctors to avoid unnecessary surgery but doesn't lower the number od incidents that patients who need the surgery don't get the surgery.

As people say, misdisgnoses have two cases. 1. actually have one but diagnoed as not having
2. actually don't have one but diagnosed as having.

In the case 1, patients need the surgery but don't get it.
In the case 2, patients don't need the surgery but get it.

If misdiagnoses with the newly developed internal scan is only case 2, unneccessary surgery can be reduced because the number of misdiagonoses is decreased while neccessary sugery is not decreased.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2012, 01:44
it should be B, but pls provide the complete question
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2014, 08:42
eybrj2 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis
invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis
to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact,
have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one
of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis




I was barely able to answer the question . I could not understand the last sentence correctly.

Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

Can anyone explain , with examples, how this sentence is structured , especially with the key word however in between .
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2014, 10:55
dransa wrote:
eybrj2 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis
invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis
to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact,
have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one
of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis




I was barely able to answer the question . I could not understand the last sentence correctly.

Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

Can anyone explain , with examples, how this sentence is structured , especially with the key word however in between .


My understanding of the last line- With the test, the doctors are now able to avoid unnecessary removals of appendix, but because of the chances of misdiagnoses, the doctors are missing to perform few of the removals even when they are necessary.

Performing any fewer necessary ones than before: Earlier when the test was not available, the doctors were performing removals in almost all the cases, including all the cases where the removals were necessary. However, now with the test, misdiagnoses is in the form of not identifying the need of removal even when it is necessary, thereby performing fewer necessary ones (removals) than before. Hence the answer is (B) : the bold part.

Hope I am able to help you. Any one, please, if my understanding is incorrect, help me understand it!
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2015, 01:18
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2016, 04:12
eybrj2 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis
invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis
to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact,
have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one
of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis


Can someone explain why 'C' is wrong
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2016, 11:24
smartguy595 wrote:
eybrj2 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis
invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis
to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact,
have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one
of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis


Can someone explain why 'C' is wrong


a very imp point is "surgery is performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases.
conclusion :- doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix
Why doctors can trust this test because (c) this test will give right result for those who have appendicitis..... ... Doctors are more concerned about 20%.
Hence C cannot be right answer.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2016, 12:59
Expert's post
smartguy595 wrote:
eybrj2 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis
invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis
to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact,
have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one
of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis


Can someone explain why 'C' is wrong


The passage ends with "since". Therefore a reason is required why the number of surgeries will go down (while the number of necessary surgeries will NOT go down).

Option C states that at present the diagnosed patients do all have appendicitis, that is there no wrong diagnosis for those who are actually positive. In future also there will be no wrong diagnosis for these actually positive patients. Therefore this is not the reason that the number of surgeries will go down.

If in future there are wrong diagnoses for these actually positive patients, (the positive patients will then be diagnosed as negative, i.e. not having appendicitis), then the number of surgeries will go down, but there is no indication that the new test will be carrying out such misdiagnoses. Hence C cannot be the answer.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2016, 00:09
Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases ( Surgery was unnecessary, however we dont know if they do have appendix or not.. could have been reslved by some medication ...dont know). A newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before, since .( the author talks about only those cases which are identified as having appendix..e.g if there are 100 cases, identified for appendix with new scan, 2 are incorrectly attributed to suffering from appendix)

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis...passage doesnt mention patients who were identified as not having appendix...leave it

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis to someone who does not, in fact, have it...negate it ...misdiagnosis produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis to someone who do have it...i.e. scan was right and premises( 2 misdiagnosis for every 98 correct) is wrong.....Correct Answer

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact, have appendicitis..negate and conclusion hold...

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis......not relevant ..doesnt tell about 2 misdiagnosed cases for every 98

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis..........it states that misdiagnosis cases are the one that were not identified as having appendicitis however they actually had it........this is not what the premise meant....Wrong.

Was stuck between B and D....just couldnt get it sorted under time pressure. Solved it after getting it wrong.....burrrrrrrrr
Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage?   [#permalink] 21 Jul 2016, 00:09
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