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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

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Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 26 Jul 2012, 14:17
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Which of the following most logically completes the
passage?

A recent government study links the high rates of
respiratory ailments in Groverston to airborne
pollutants released by the Woodco plywood
manufacturing plant there. To address the problem,
the government imposed strict regulations on
emissions which will go into effect in four years.
Although Woodco plans to cut its emissions in half
two years ahead of schedule, it is unlikely that the
rate of respiratory ailments will decline before the
regulations go into effect, since _____________ .

(A) the number of facilities capable of treating
respiratory ailments is not likely to increase

(B) reducing emissions even further than planned
would necessitate decreasing production at
Woodco

(C) it is difficult to make accurate, long-term
predictions about emissions

(D) not all respiratory ailments are caused by
airborne pollutants

(E) three new plywood manufacturing plants are
about to go into production in Groverston
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 26 Jul 2012, 19:40
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Expert's post
betterscore wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the
passage?

A recent government study links the high rates of
respiratory ailments in Groverston to airborne
pollutants released by the Woodco plywood
manufacturing plant there. To address the problem,
the government imposed strict regulations on
emissions which will go into effect in four years.
Although Woodco plans to cut its emissions in half
two years ahead of schedule, it is unlikely that the
rate of respiratory ailments will decline before the
regulations go into effect, since _____________ .

(A) the number of facilities capable of treating
respiratory ailments is not likely to increase

(B) reducing emissions even further than planned
would necessitate decreasing production at
Woodco

(C) it is difficult to make accurate, long-term
predictions about emissions

(D) not all respiratory ailments are caused by
airborne pollutants

(E) three new plywood manufacturing plants are
about to go into production in Groverston



To answer this question, you need to find an answer choice that correctly describes why ailments will not decrease in spite of emmission reductions. It's okay to bring in new information, but that information needs to stay true to the stated premises in the argument.

A-We're concerned about the number of ailments, not the treatment "post-ailment".
B-How Woodco acheives its reduction in emmissions is irrelevant because that reduction is already a given premise.
C-Irrelevant information. This does not explain why ailments would increase despite decreased emmissions.
D-Interesting point, but irrelevant because the first premise states that the ailments are connected to airborne emmissions. Granted there could be other ailments, but the ones we care about result from airborne pollutants.
E-This is right on! If new plants go into production in Groverston, the emmissions from the 3 new plants will overwhelm the emmissions acheived in the Woodco plant.

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 26 Jul 2012, 20:07
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In the logically complete the passage questions/must be true question, we should stick to the entities given in the passage and the AO should pass the FACT TEST .
One can easily narrow it down to D/E.
D is incorrect because it broadens the scope of discussion.
E is correct.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 26 Jul 2012, 22:08
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Perfect explanation by Kyle.

(A) the number of facilities capable of treating respiratory ailments is not likely to increase
the prevention is under consideration not the cure.How the spread can be controlled not how it will be cured later is under question

(B) reducing emissions even further than planned would necessitate decreasing production at Woodco
reducing pollution can be achieved by installing new machines for purification etc, the production need not be decreased.

(C) it is difficult to make accurate, long-term predictions about emissions

we can't question the premise and we have to consider it true.

(D) not all respiratory ailments are caused by airborne pollutants
the argument is concerned about the diseases caused by the airborne pollutants also, it is clearly mentioned that".....the high rates of respiratory ailments in Groverston to airborne pollutants released by the Woodco plywood
manufacturing plant ..."so other reasons for the same is out of scope.


(E) three new plywood manufacturing plants are
about to go into production in Groverston
New plants will bring more pollution and hence it will increase the risk of the disease.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 27 Jul 2012, 08:19
Adding 3 new plants would nullify the emission cuts done by the existing plants to a major extent.

Hence E is the correct answer.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 20 Oct 2013, 22:13
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 01 Feb 2014, 18:43
Holy Molly

Between d and e I chose d.
E. The premise clearly says that the airborne pollutants by the woodco plant. The new plants are not specified by woodco and study clearly links airborne pollutants of woodco plant and no claim abt any other manufacturing plants. Regulation just says emissions. I cannot conclude the new plants or any plant other than woodco releases harmful pollutants. Even after the regulations go into affect, it was a stretch to assume all new plants will also act like the harmful woodco plant.

Therefore I gave preference to d because irrespective of what woodco does, the world is going to be a hell with respiratory ailments.

But seems like you all have a different reasoning....
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 01 Feb 2014, 21:41
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aagar2003 wrote:
Holy Molly

Between d and e I chose d.
E. The premise clearly says that the airborne pollutants by the woodco plant. The new plants are not specified by woodco and study clearly links airborne pollutants of woodco plant and no claim abt any other manufacturing plants. Regulation just says emissions. I cannot conclude the new plants or any plant other than woodco releases harmful pollutants. Even after the regulations go into affect, it was a stretch to assume all new plants will also act like the harmful woodco plant.

Therefore I gave preference to d because irrespective of what woodco does, the world is going to be a hell with respiratory ailments.

But seems like you all have a different reasoning....

Hi,

Even though the world may remain hell with respiratory ailments, it can become slightly lesser hell if you take one hell-creating-reason out. Therefore, we cannot say that intensity of "hell" will not decrease ( this means that option D doesn't support the conclusion).

For example: If Joe gets slaps from 100 people a day, including me. Then, if I stop slapping him, definitely his pain will reduce, even though there are still 99 people who are going to slap him.

Just my two cents. I am not sure if it helps.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2014, 23:41
If E is indeed the answer are we to assume that the 3 new plywood plants are gonna be set up without emission control ?

And why not D? Over the years the other factors that cause resp ailments may increase and sustain the number of respiratory ailment cases in Groverstone ryt?

It seems as if we are making convenient assumptions to get to the answer. Someone plz help clarify :(
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 15 Jul 2014, 14:53
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janxavier wrote:
If E is indeed the answer are we to assume that the 3 new plywood plants are gonna be set up without emission control ?

And why not D? Over the years the other factors that cause resp ailments may increase and sustain the number of respiratory ailment cases in Groverstone ryt?

It seems as if we are making convenient assumptions to get to the answer. Someone plz help clarify :(


In considering the impact on the 3 new plants we can only pull from the information in the argument, stating that these plants do create airborne emissions and the governmental regulations don't go into effect for 4 years. The current site will see emissions cut in half, but that is still several years away. The new plants are set to open in the near future, so even if we assume the new plants come online at 50% of the current plant's emissions we are still increasing the airborne pollution by 150%. That would certainly lead us to believe that respiratory illnesses will not decrease (answer E).

Answer choice D is a bit tempting, but one of the premises is that the "high" rates of respiratory illnesses are connected to the plants. We don't have information on the other factors, but the premises make clear that the major cause of high rates that the government is trying to reduce comes from emissions from the plant. We need an answer choice that helps us understand how we can reduce emissions at that plant and still have these elevated rates. Only choice E gives us that information.

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Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2014, 07:46
I red attentively all the answers and, as a few other questions I am training on, I have problems to understand the assumptions that are made in the correct answers (for some of them).
What if respiration ailments are caused ONLY by Woodco plant... Answer E doesn't say that the three plants will be built by Woodco, it only says that they will be plywood plants. What if the three new plants will be built by another company that has a process that they don't produce these resp ailments ?
We are here making the assumption that it's the plywood that creates the resp ailments, aren't we ? But the arguments says "government study links the high rates of respiratory ailments in Groverston to airborne pollutants
released by the Woodco plywood manufacturing plant there"

I answered D making the assumption that the government's study might be not complete and it might be that WoodCo uses a product in their process that generates airborne pollutants.

Now it's my assumption against other's assumptions. So in that case we can make many "wrong" classified answers "right" by making assumptions and we could debate many of the questions' right answers.

If I am wrong on making an assumption on a statement from the argument, and the correct answer made an assumption for one answer, then I should be free to make any assumption to make any answer correct; or that means that the corrector is free to make his own assumptions and instead of studying for the GMAT, I'd rather contact them now, and spend some holiday with them to determine their personality so I can guess what are the assumptions. :)

How about this one ?
In the last decade there has been a significant decrease in coffee consumption. During this same time, there
has been increasing publicity about the adverse long-term effects on health of the caffeine in coffee.
Therefore, the decrease in coffee consumption must have been caused by consumers’ awareness of the
harmful effects of caffeine.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the explanation above?
(A) On average, people consume 30 percent less coffee today than they did 10 years ago.
(B) Heavy coffee drinkers may have mild withdrawal symptoms, such as headaches, for a day or so after
significantly decreasing their coffee consumption.
(C) Sales of specialty types of coffee have held steady as sales of regular brands have declined.
(D) The consumption of fruit juices and caffeine-free herbal teas has increased over the past decade.
(E) Coffee prices increased steadily in the past decade because of unusually severe frosts in coffee-growing
nations.


The correct answer is E... but I did not make the assumption that the customer has a fix budget on buying coffee and therefore stopped buying increasing price coffee (but the corrector made this assumption)... I made the one that, instead of consuming coffee, people switched to fruit juices and caffeine-free herbal teas. You see, it's my assumption against the one of the corrector.

Can someone please tell me how and when I can clearly make assumptions.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2014, 13:42
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lfcfan wrote:
I red attentively all the answers and, as a few other questions I am training on, I have problems to understand the assumptions that are made in the correct answers (for some of them).
What if respiration ailments are caused ONLY by Woodco plant... Answer E doesn't say that the three plants will be built by Woodco, it only says that they will be plywood plants. What if the three new plants will be built by another company that has a process that they don't produce these resp ailments ?
We are here making the assumption that it's the plywood that creates the resp ailments, aren't we ? But the arguments says "government study links the high rates of respiratory ailments in Groverston to airborne pollutants
released by the Woodco plywood manufacturing plant there"

I answered D making the assumption that the government's study might be not complete and it might be that WoodCo uses a product in their process that generates airborne pollutants.

Now it's my assumption against other's assumptions. So in that case we can make many "wrong" classified answers "right" by making assumptions and we could debate many of the questions' right answers.

If I am wrong on making an assumption on a statement from the argument, and the correct answer made an assumption for one answer, then I should be free to make any assumption to make any answer correct; or that means that the corrector is free to make his own assumptions and instead of studying for the GMAT, I'd rather contact them now, and spend some holiday with them to determine their personality so I can guess what are the assumptions. :)


First, let me shift your mindset. Your job in critical reasoning is not to make assumptions. You job is to determine which assumptions are made by the argument.

Take this argument about respiratory illnesses. The premises state that illness is connected to the Woodco plants. Woodco plans to reduce emissions but that won't reduce the amount of illness. What could cause that? It seems that we are addressing the issue of Woodco emissions, so why won't that change reduce the amount of illnesses? We need to find the answer that provides additional information that helps us understand why the plan won't work. Only E gives us information that would explain why the reduction in emissions won't reduce illness - more emissions are going to come online. The assumption that this statement attacks is that in the process of fixing the Woodco emissions you don't add more emissions to the environment. We didn't make this assumption - this was an assumption that was part of the original argument.

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2014, 13:56
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lfcfan wrote:

How about this one ?
In the last decade there has been a significant decrease in coffee consumption. During this same time, there
has been increasing publicity about the adverse long-term effects on health of the caffeine in coffee.
Therefore, the decrease in coffee consumption must have been caused by consumers’ awareness of the
harmful effects of caffeine.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the explanation above?
(A) On average, people consume 30 percent less coffee today than they did 10 years ago.
(B) Heavy coffee drinkers may have mild withdrawal symptoms, such as headaches, for a day or so after
significantly decreasing their coffee consumption.
(C) Sales of specialty types of coffee have held steady as sales of regular brands have declined.
(D) The consumption of fruit juices and caffeine-free herbal teas has increased over the past decade.
(E) Coffee prices increased steadily in the past decade because of unusually severe frosts in coffee-growing
nations.


The correct answer is E... but I did not make the assumption that the customer has a fix budget on buying coffee and therefore stopped buying increasing price coffee (but the corrector made this assumption)... I made the one that, instead of consuming coffee, people switched to fruit juices and caffeine-free herbal teas. You see, it's my assumption against the one of the corrector.

Can someone please tell me how and when I can clearly make assumptions.


So, just like before, you need to remember that you are not going to make assumptions. You have to identify which assumptions are made by the argument. The assumptions sit in the logical gaps between premises and the conclusion. They are the unwritten elements that have to be true for the assumption to be valid.

Here the argument states that coffee consumption has decreases over the same period that publicity has discussed the health impacts of caffeine. The conclusion states that the publicity is the cause of the decrease. Your job is to attack an assumption made between the premises and conclusion. You could probably think up some assumptions on your own, but this doesn't make sense on a GMAT question because assumptions are basically limitless and it's hard to predict which assumption the GMAT will be using on any given problem. You need to recognize the assumptions (or in this case the attacks on assumptions) as you go through the answer choices.

A-This supports the premises
B-This is out of scope
C-This one is tempting because it talks about a decline but doesn't offer an alternate explanation for that decline
D-Also tempting, but it doesn't directly explain the decrease in coffee - there isn't a direct connection to say that coffee drinkers have switched to juices and teas.
E-This provides us with an alternate explanation for the decrease - people aren't willing to pay more money for their coffee. This attacks the assumptions that people are not price sensitive about their coffee buying (see - you never would have guessed that when you first read the argument)

KW
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2014, 14:20
Kyle, thank you very much for your answers.
Just for me to understand, on the latter,
Answer E makes clearly the assumption that the drop of coffee consumption is caused by the increase of coffee price. In answer D, why is the assumption that the coffee consumption drop is caused by people switching to herbal tea and juice wrong ?
You say that "there isn't a direct connection to say that coffee drinkers have switched to juices and teas" and I agree. But there is none either that says that people are not paying for the price difference coming from the steady increase of coffee price.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 07 Nov 2014, 15:02
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lfcfan wrote:
Kyle, thank you very much for your answers.
Just for me to understand, on the latter,
Answer E makes clearly the assumption that the drop of coffee consumption is caused by the increase of coffee price. In answer D, why is the assumption that the coffee consumption drop is caused by people switching to herbal tea and juice wrong ?
You say that "there isn't a direct connection to say that coffee drinkers have switched to juices and teas" and I agree. But there is none either that says that people are not paying for the price difference coming from the steady increase of coffee price.


There issue isn't with the assumption, it's with the answer choice. The answer choice says that there has been an increase in consumption of juice and caffeine-free herbal teas. If we are trying to attack the conclusion (the decrease in coffee usage stems from the anti-caffeine publicity) we need information to explain a decrease in coffee that is not related to caffeine. This answer choice actually supports instead of attacks the conclusion - they stopped drinking coffee and started drinking non-caffeine drinks to get away from unhealthy caffeine.

If the answer choice said that people preferred the taste of juices and non-caffeine teas (unrelated to the health benefits) and switched from drinking coffee, then we would have an answer choice that would attack the conclusion.

KW
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 31 Dec 2014, 04:51
I was stuck between D and E.
Didn't go for E as the option was bringing in new Information ie 3 new plants

I thought we could bring in new info only for weaken/strengthen questions. Please correct me if I'm wrong.

Many thanks
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 31 Dec 2014, 14:51
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This question is essentially acting as a weaken question because it asks you to complete the part that describes why the result is "unlikely". We need to introduce new information to show why it is unlikely.

KW

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage?   [#permalink] 31 Dec 2014, 14:51
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