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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

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Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2008, 05:48
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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis
invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis
to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact,
have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one
of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis

Can someone also explain what does the last line mean?
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2008, 09:30
tough one

but C sounds like a premise that best supports the conclusion
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2008, 10:02
D for me. This complements two premises to arrive at the conclusion.
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2008, 10:20
I picked C and here is my reasoning

Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before,
since .

Looking at the part in bold, I felt that I need to find some thing that says the number/percentage of necessary surgeries would not change. C pretty much says that.

All those who are diagnosed with A indeed have A. As far as the 2% misses are concerned, they probably belong to people who are diagnosed as NOT having A, even though they have A. In this case, the number of people who will undergo surgery will not go down.
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2008, 13:34
I picked C - If everyone was diagnosed 100% correctly due to the new testing method, then all of them diagnosed with appendicitis would have to go through the procedure. Therefore, there wouldn't be a decrease in procedures.

The last sentence in the passage was very hard to understand (probably re-read it 10x). I hope this is not an OG question, because I'm sure they've violated some SC principles. :roll: They should be :2gunfire: fired. hehe

GMBA85 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis
invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis
to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact,
have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one
of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis

Can someone also explain what does the last line mean?
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2008, 17:17
B for meIf you overdiagnose cases, you will end up doing more than required surgeries but you will not miss any necessary ones. This is a case of false-positives. False-positives are always better than false-negatives. This way you will not miss any true-positive cases.
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2008, 17:37
GMBA85 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis -> how can one relate this with deciding whether removal of the appendix is necssary or not

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis to someone who does not, in fact, have it
-> this talks about misdiagnoses and does not support concl

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact, have appendicitis -> this is correct ,since it says only patients with genuine appendix are operated and hence no unnecessary removal of apendix

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis -> this is irrelevant ,we are not worried about the symptoms and hence eliminate

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis -> this is irrelevant to the given context

Can someone also explain what does the last line mean?


IMO C
OA?
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 30 Sep 2008, 18:02
What about the misdiagnoses? What if the patients who are misdiagnosed, in fact have appendicitis, but are misdiagnosed as not having appendicitis? Note: misdiagnosis could mean either one- patients with the disease diagnosed as not having it and vice versa. According to C 2/100 cases may actually have appendicitis but be diagnosed as not having it. In such a case fewer than necessary surgeries would be performed. So, C is out. By B I agree that 2 unnecessary surgeries could be performed. But you have to carefully regard the word "largely" in the paragraph. Unnecessary surgeries would still be "largely" prevented.
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 01 Oct 2008, 00:04
MY PICK WUD BE C
OA PLS
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2008, 06:52
I chose E, because we have two things: misdiagnosis and simptoms. I think that this proves the efficience of the new test.
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2008, 07:38
IMO B.

I felt that C is too strong. It says all the patients diagnosed with the new test had A it may be possible that this test was not applied to some one without A.

On the other hand B says that in worst case people who dont have A will be operated for A. Remember that the passage says fixing A is low risk and is performed on anyone with symptom. So considering C in worst case 2% will be operated wrongly.
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2008, 11:09
one more B


no. of diagnosed cases wudnt be less , might be more though

only happens when some body who doesn't even have it gets a +ve test result and is then treated.

But this is again only 2% so it will be less than before (20%) but still number of people for whom the treatment is necessary wont reduce.

Imagine if the 2% failure behaved in the way that people who have get diagonized as -ve ; in that case 2% necessary treatments might have been missed.
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2008, 14:02
GMBA85 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis
invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis
to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact,
have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one
of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis

Can someone also explain what does the last line mean?

Should be (B)

Say 80 out of 100 cases were correctly diagnosed per the previous surgery. Using the new scan, how would you ensure that the 80 surgeries that were previously diagnosed correctly will continue to be accurately detected? This is possible only when the new scan detects 98 surgeries that are correct (AND INCLUDES the 80 correct ones from the earlier surgery) and perhaps misdiagnoses 2 (that are essentially false positives). It is essential that these 2 be false positives, as the new scan should not leave out any real cases that were correctly identified before.
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 03 Oct 2008, 20:31
OA is B
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Re: CR Appendix [#permalink] New post 01 Jun 2010, 04:36
IMO B.

I was confused b/w B and E. I went ahead with my intution.

Conclusion: Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix without performing any fewer necessary ones than before, since.

C is wrong because it says ALL where in the argument we are given 98% accurate results.

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis [Extereme case]

GMBA85 wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix) is potentially fatal; consequently, patients with
symptoms strongly suggesting appendicitis almost have their appendix removed. The
appropriate surgery is low-risk but performed unnecessarily in about 20 percent of all cases. A
newly developed internal scan for appendicitis is highly accurate, producing two
misdiagnoses for every 98 correct diagnoses. Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary
ones than before, since .

A. the patients who are correctly diagnosed with this test as not having appendicitis
invariably have medical conditions that are much less serious than appendicitis

B. the misdiagnoses produced by this test are always instances of attributing appendicitis
to someone who does not, in fact, have it

C. all of the patients who are diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis do, in fact,
have appendicitis

D. every patient who is diagnosed with this test as having appendicitis has more than one
of the symptoms generally associated with appendicitis

E. the only patients who are misdiagnosed using this test are patients who lack one or
more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis

Can someone also explain what does the last line mean?

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 18 Feb 2012, 07:05
I still don;t understand why the OA is B.

What is the wrong with E - I don't think it is extreme to use 'the only patients'; B also uses the word 'always'. Any more explanations?
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 19 Feb 2012, 10:07
The word "always" used in "B" is necessary to back up the claim made in the last sentence that "doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before"
the bold portion can only be true if the 2 misdiagnoses per 100 are cases of false positives.. If they were false negatives then the doctors WOULD HAVE performed fewer necessary surgeries which does not logically follow from the previous sentence.

Also E seems logically unrelated to the previous sentence because there is nothing in the paragraph that suggests that the test only misdiagnoses those patients who lack one or more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis. Also as a side note, it also suggests that the misdiagnoses are false negatives, which again contradicts the last line of the paragraph which says that doctors will not perform any fewer necessary surgeries..
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 19 Feb 2012, 20:32
karun0109 wrote:
The word "always" used in "B" is necessary to back up the claim made in the last sentence that "doctors can largely avoid
unnecessary removals of the appendix without, without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before"
the bold portion can only be true if the 2 misdiagnoses per 100 are cases of false positives.. If they were false negatives then the doctors WOULD HAVE performed fewer necessary surgeries which does not logically follow from the previous sentence.

Also E seems logically unrelated to the previous sentence because there is nothing in the paragraph that suggests that the test only misdiagnoses those patients who lack one or more of the symptoms that are generally associated with appendicitis. Also as a side note, it also suggests that the misdiagnoses are false negatives, which again contradicts the last line of the paragraph which says that doctors will not perform any fewer necessary surgeries..


So, we have to break down the last sentence like below (this sentence confused me a lot):
From the passage:
"Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before, since ."

Break down:
1. Doctors are able to avoid unnecessary surgeries
2. But, in that process, they would miss some REQUIRED surgeries.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink] New post 20 Feb 2012, 14:43
"Clearly, using this test, doctors can largely avoid unnecessary removals of the appendix without, however, performing any fewer necessary ones than before, since ."

Actually, the break down would be:
1. Doctors are able to avoid unnecessary surgeries
2. But they would NOT miss performing ANY necessary ones. :)

WITHOUT is the key word. the doctors would avoid performing unnecessary removals of the appendix WITHOUT having to perform any fewer necessary ones.

Also note that ANY is the extreme word that demands the extreme logical addition of "always". ANY implies that the doctors would not miss out on performing even 1 fewer surgery than necessary....
Re: Which of the following most logically completes the passage?   [#permalink] 20 Feb 2012, 14:43
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