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With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare

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With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare [#permalink] New post 24 Jul 2005, 19:03
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With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare benefits has been dropping since 1973, resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than in 1973

(a)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than
(b)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement as
(c)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than it did
(d)and as a result the welfare program now costs about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than it did
(e)and the welfare program now costs about 3 billion real dollars less as a result to implement than
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 [#permalink] New post 24 Jul 2005, 22:44
is the answer C? the que is tough no doubt, but i'll try to post my reason after u tell me wat the right answer is
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 [#permalink] New post 25 Jul 2005, 01:05
A - Not very clear. Comparisons are made between the costs to implement. So elliptical verb is required.
B - Wrong Idiom - "as"
C - Keep
D and E - modifies te meaning of the sentence.

Hence "C"

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 [#permalink] New post 25 Jul 2005, 05:21
OA is not C .. :-)

have another try ...
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 [#permalink] New post 26 Jul 2005, 17:28
D it is ..

can anyone explain why not C

since participle phrase/clause modifies the idea of the main clause
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 [#permalink] New post 26 Jul 2005, 17:43
C is correct as all others answers compare cost with 1973. Only C removes this ambiguity by using than it did
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Re: Welfare benefits [#permalink] New post 26 Jul 2005, 17:50
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D. "it: in C is not correct. it should be they. also need "than" after less to make the comparision logical.
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Re: Welfare benefits [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2011, 01:58
IMO the answer should be D.
In the sentence there is a comma after the sentence "... dropping since 1973," hence "resulting" should not be used. "Resulting" could have been used if there were no comma.

Hence D suits more logically to the sentence fulfilling "... dropping since 1973, and as a result..."
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Re: Welfare benefits [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2011, 03:19
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Notwithstanding that the OA is D, I have my reasons to rebut it. After all, both C and D use ‘it’; they also use 'than it did’; the difference lies in D being a compound sentence and C being a simple sentence with a participial modifier

The use of a participle modifier is legal and appropriate in order to modify the theme of the dropping cost, which is causing the reduction in costs now. A participle can modify either the noun or the idea lying before it.
The question is whether you will use a simple sentence or a more verbose compound sentence to express a phenomenon. I reckon a simple sentence is to be logically preferred over the compound sentence. Hence, I prefer C.

However, please appreciate that both 'resulting' and 'costing' are participles and not gerunds. Again, we cannot use resulting without the comma before that since that will mean wrongly that resulting modifies 1973, giving an absurd meaning.
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Re: Welfare benefits [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2011, 10:38
IMO C

I do not understand how D is a right possibility. Can someone please summarize the sentence as you can see it as a right option? I do not understand how - and +"," are going together in that sentence.

thanks.
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Re: Welfare benefits [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2011, 12:55
I carelessly picked C, but I understand why D is better.
I think is a matter of meaning. In option D "and as a result the welfare program now costs about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than it did "cost not costing" in 1973
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With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2014, 03:17
Any of the Moderators please reply.
Why D over C ?

As per me ,and is used
1. in case there are more than 2 elements in the list
2. to connect two independent clauses i.e. it begins a new clause with S-V pair.

But here we need to show the result of a previous clause, So i guess "-ing" Usage is better .
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Re: With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare [#permalink] New post 16 Dec 2014, 08:32
daagh wrote:
Notwithstanding that the OA is D, I have my reasons to rebut it. After all, both C and D use ‘it’; they also use 'than it did’; the difference lies in D being a compound sentence and C being a simple sentence with a participial modifier

The use of a participle modifier is legal and appropriate in order to modify the theme of the dropping cost, which is causing the reduction in costs now. A participle can modify either the noun or the idea lying before it.
The question is whether you will use a simple sentence or a more verbose compound sentence to express a phenomenon. I reckon a simple sentence is to be logically preferred over the compound sentence. Hence, I prefer C.

However, please appreciate that both 'resulting' and 'costing' are participles and not gerunds. Again, we cannot use resulting without the comma before that since that will mean wrongly that resulting modifies 1973, giving an absurd meaning.


Good points, and I completely agree.

In addition, the use of "as a result" needs to be followed by a comma (transitional phrases).
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With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare [#permalink] New post 23 Jun 2015, 03:40
daagh wrote:
Notwithstanding that the OA is D, I have my reasons to rebut it. After all, both C and D use ‘it’; they also use 'than it did’; the difference lies in D being a compound sentence and C being a simple sentence with a participial modifier

The use of a participle modifier is legal and appropriate in order to modify the theme of the dropping cost, which is causing the reduction in costs now. A participle can modify either the noun or the idea lying before it.
The question is whether you will use a simple sentence or a more verbose compound sentence to express a phenomenon. I reckon a simple sentence is to be logically preferred over the compound sentence. Hence, I prefer C.

However, please appreciate that both 'resulting' and 'costing' are participles and not gerunds. Again, we cannot use resulting without the comma before that since that will mean wrongly that resulting modifies 1973, giving an absurd meaning.


Hi daagh

I am sorry but can you explain it in some other way.
Your present explanation is very confusing.
Also comma is dr before resulting. what are you trying to say..?
Please explain..!

What i think is...
1.
In such comparison structures the verb in the latter part is usually not written.
The problem here is that 'did' must stand for a verb, while 'costing' is not really a verb.

2.
With adjustments for inflation, the relative cost of welfare benefits has been dropping since 1973, resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than in 1973.

We don't know to which clause resulting refers to...!!! :!:

Is this explanation correct? :roll:
Plz elaborate..!
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With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare [#permalink] New post 02 Jul 2015, 03:50
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biddu wrote:
With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare benefits has been dropping since 1973, resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than in 1973

(a)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than
(b)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement as
(c)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than it did
(d)and as a result the welfare program now costs about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than it did
(e)and the welfare program now costs about 3 billion real dollars less as a result to implement than



This sentence requires comparison of cost of the program now and in 1973. Since "less" is used here for comparison, the correct sentence must have "less .. than" structure. So B is out.
Now, it is the cost in 1973 that is being compared with the cost now, we should have "it did" before "in 1973". So A and E are out.

Now between C and D:
(c)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than it did

C has two errrors
i) sentence implies that the "drop in cost of welfare benefits resulted in the welfare program". The drop did not result in the program itself, rather resulted in lower cost of the program. Here "now costing about..." is essentially modifying the noun "the welfare program". The word "costing" is not acting as a verb, rather as a -ing modifier. Hence the option C reads more like "the drop resulted in the welfare program", which has some other cost related features.
ii) Ideally "did" at the end represents past particle of the verb "cost". However, all we have is the -ing modifier "costing", which can not be considered as both modifier and verb in the same sentence.

In choice D, it is clear that "as a result it is the welfare program that now costs xyz than it did (cost) in 1973". since cost is used here as a verb next to "the welfare program", we can again use it as a verb as a replacement of "did".
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Re: With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare [#permalink] New post 07 Jul 2015, 19:47
With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare benefits has been dropping since 1973, resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than in 1973

(a)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than
(b)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement as
(c)resulting in the welfare program now costing about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than it did
(d)and as a result the welfare program now costs about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than it did
(e)and the welfare program now costs about 3 billion real dollars less as a result to implement than


I see it like this.. The verb resulting states as if the relative cost is what is causing the welfare program to cost less rather it is the adjustments in inflation that is causing this. Hence when we use and as a result, here we say that the adjustment in inflation caused the relative cost of welfare benefits to drop and has caused the welfare program to cost about 3 billion real dollars less to implement than it did.

Please correct me if i am wrong
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With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare [#permalink] New post 08 Jul 2015, 12:54
Option "C" vs "D" -

Cause ->adjustments for inflation
Effect-1 -> relative cost of welfare benefits dropping
Effect-2 (Final Effect) -> welfare program now cost less

The final effect should always refer to the main cause not the previous effect (intermediate cause).

option "C" - Resulting would refer back to the relative cost (final effect refers to previous effect - wrong )
option "D" - and as a result clearly mean that welfare program now cost less because of adjustments for inflation (final effect refers to main cause - correct)
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Re: With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2015, 00:16
HKD1710 wrote:
Option "C" vs "D" -

Cause ->adjustments for inflation
Effect-1 -> relative cost of welfare benefits dropping
Effect-2 (Final Effect) -> welfare program now cost less

The final effect should always refer to the main cause not the previous effect (intermediate cause).

option "C" - Resulting would refer back to the relative cost (final effect refers to previous effect - wrong )
option "D" - and as a result clearly mean that welfare program now cost less because of adjustments for inflation (final effect refers to main cause - correct)

I see it a little differently,
Cause > relative cost of welfare benefits dropping
Modifier of cause > With adjustments for inflation
Effect > the welfare program now costs less

Only Option D makes this relationship crystal clear.
Re: With adjustments for inflation,the relative cost of welfare   [#permalink] 11 Jul 2015, 00:16
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