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Women's participation in the revolutionary events in France

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Women's participation in the revolutionary events in France [#permalink] New post 07 May 2011, 01:14
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Women’s participation in the revolutionary events in France between 1789 and 1795 has only recently been given nuanced treatment. Early twentieth century historians of the French Revolution are typified by Jaures, who, though sympathetic to the women’s movement of his own time, never even mentions its antecedents in revolutionary France. Even today most general histories treat only cursorily a few individual women, like Marie Antoinette. The recent studies by Landes, Badinter, Godineau, and Roudinesco, however, should signal a much-needed reassessment of women’s participation.

Godineau and Roudinesco point to three significant phases in that participation. The first, up to mid-1792, involved those women who wrote political tracts . Typical of their orientation to theoretical issues—in Godineaus’s view, without practical effect—is Marie Gouze’s Declaration of the Right of Women. The emergence of vocal middle-class women’s political clubs marks the second phase. Formed in 1791 as adjuncts of middle-class male political clubs, and originally philanthropic in function, by late 1792 independent clubs of women began to advocate military participation for women. In the final phase, the famine of 1795 occasioned a mass women’s movement: women seized food supplies , hold officials hostage, and argued for the implementation of democratic politics. This phase ended in May of 1795 with the military suppression of this multi-class movement. In all three phases women’s participation in politics contrasted markedly with their participation before 1789. Before that date some noblewomen participated indirectly in elections, but such participation by more than a narrow range of the population—women or men—came only with the Revolution.

What makes the recent studies particularly compelling, however, is not so much their organization of chronology as their unflinching willingness to confront the reasons for the collapse of the women’s movement. For Landes and Badinter, the necessity of women’s having to speak in the established vocabularies of certain intellectual and political tradition diminished the ability of the women’s movement to resist suppression. Many women, and many men, they argue, located their vision within the confining tradition of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who linked male and female roles with public and private spheres respectively. But, when women went on to make political alliances with radical Jacobin men, Badinter asserts, they adopted a vocabulary and a violently extremist viewpoint that unfortunately was even more damaging to their political interests.

Each of these scholars has different political agenda and takes a different approach—Godineau, for example, works with police archives while Roudinesco uses explanatory schema from modern psychology. Yet, admirably, each gives center stage to a group that previously has been marginalized, or at best undifferentiated, by historians. And in the case of Landes and Badinter, the reader is left with a sobering awareness of the cost to the women of the Revolution of speaking in borrowed voices.

1. Which one of the following best states the main point of the passage?
(A) According to recent historical studies, the participation of women in the revolutionary events of 1789-1795 can most profitably be viewed in three successive stages.
(B) The findings of certain recent historical studies have resulted from an earlier general reassessment, by historians, of women’s participation in the revolutionary events of 1789-1795.
(C) Adopting the vocabulary and viewpoint of certain intellectual and political traditions resulted in no political advantage for women in France in the years 1789-1795.
(D) Certain recent historical studies have provided a much-needed description and evaluation of the evolving roles of women in the revolutionary events of 1789-1795.
(E) Historical studies that seek to explain the limitations of the women’s movement is more convincing than are those that seek only to describe the general features of that movement.

2. The passage suggests that Godineau would be likely to agree with which one of the following statements about Marie Gouze’s Declaration of the Rights of Women?
(A) This work was not understood by many of Gouze’s contemporaries.
(B) This work indirectly inspired the formation of independent women’s political clubs.
(C) This work had little impact on the world of political action.
(D) This work was the most compelling produced by a French woman between 1789 and 1792.
(E) This work is typical of the kind of writing French women produced between 1793 and 1795.

3. According to the passage, which one of the following is a true statement about the purpose of the women’s political cubs mentioned in line 20?
(A) These clubs fostered a mass women’s movement.
(B) These clubs eventually developed a purpose different from their original purpose.
(C) These clubs were founder to advocate military participation for women.
(D) These clubs counteracted the original purpose of male political clubs.
(E) These clubs lost their direction by the time of the famine of 1795.

4. The primary function of the first paragraph of the passage is to:
(A) outline the author’s argument about women’s roles in Frances between 1789 and 1795
(B) anticipate possible challenges to the findings of the recent studies of women in France between 1789 and 1795
(C) summarize some long-standing explanations of the role of individual women in France between 1789 and 1795
(D) present a context for the discussion of recent studies of women in France between 1789 and 1795
(E) characterize various eighteenth-century studies of women in France

5. The passage suggests that Landes and Badinter would be likely to agree with which one of the following statements about the women’s movement in France in the 1790s?
(A) The movement might have been more successful if women had developed their own political vocabularies.
(B) The downfall of the movement was probably unrelated to it alliance with Jacobin men.
(C) The movement had a great deal of choice about whether to adopt a Rousseauist political vocabulary.
(D) The movement would have triumphed if it had not been suppressed by military means.
(E) The movement viewed a Rousseauist political tradition, rather than a Jacobin political ideology, as detrimental to its interests.

6. In the context of the passage, the word “cost” in line 63 refers to the
(A) dichotomy of private roles for women and public roles for men
(B) almost nonexistent political participation of women before 1789
(C) historians’ lack of differentiation among various groups of women
(D) political alliances women made with radical Jacobin men
(E) collapse of the women’s movement in the 1790s

7. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with
(A) criticizing certain political and intellectual traditions
(B) summarizing the main points of several recent historical studies and assessing their value
(C) establishing a chronological sequence and arguing for its importance
(D) comparing and contrasting women’s political activities before and after the French Revolution
(E) reexamining a long-held point of view and isolating its strengths and weaknesses
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Re: LSAT5 [#permalink] New post 07 May 2011, 03:44
My answer:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
1 D
2 E
3 C
4 D
5 A
6 E
7 B

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Re: LSAT5 [#permalink] New post 07 May 2011, 04:04
please try and post the explanations of your answers , that will help others understand the passage, and in fact it will help you as well.
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Re: LSAT5 [#permalink] New post 07 May 2011, 07:21
garimavyas wrote:
please try and post the explanations of your answers , that will help others understand the passage, and in fact it will help you as well.

I am waiting for the OA to check the correctness of my answer. Moreover, I don't want other posters to be affected by my answer and my explanations (that's why I put my response in spoiler).
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Re: LSAT5 [#permalink] New post 07 May 2011, 07:25
ok then , the OA are DCBDAEB.
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Re: LSAT5 [#permalink] New post 07 May 2011, 08:51
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Passage structure
1st paragraph: Women’s participation in the revolutionary events in France between 1789 and 1795 has been recently paid attention. Early twentieth century historians and most general histories did this job, but there are some shortcomings in their studies. Then the recent studies by 4 people - Landes, Badinter, Godineau, and Roudinesco - succeeded in assessing women's participation.

2nd paragraph: This para introduces the studies of Godineau and Roudinesco and explains the 3 phases in women's participation.

3rd paragraph: This para introduces the studies of Landes and Badinter.

Last paragraph: Each of these scholars has different political agenda and takes a different approach, but each gives center stage to a group that previously has been marginalized, or at best undifferentiated, by historians.

Main idea of the passage: The recent studies by Landes, Badinter, Godineau, and Roudinesco, should signal a much-needed reassessment of women’s participation

1. Which one of the following best states the main point of the passage?
(A) According to recent historical studies, the participation of women in the revolutionary events of 1789-1795 can most profitably be viewed in three successive stages. -- This is the main idea of para 2, but not the main idea of the whole passage --> INCORRECT
(B) The findings of certain recent historical studies have resulted from an earlier general reassessment, by historians, of women’s participation in the revolutionary events of 1789-1795. -- This is not true. The earlier general assessment does not relate to the recent studies --> INCORRECT
(C) Adopting the vocabulary and viewpoint of certain intellectual and political traditions resulted in no political advantage for women in France in the years 1789-1795. -- This is a detailed info in para 3, so it cannot be the main idea of the whole passage --> INCORRECT
(D) Certain recent historical studies have provided a much-needed description and evaluation of the evolving roles of women in the revolutionary events of 1789-1795. -- this choice paraphrases the last sentence of the first para --> CORRECT
(E) Historical studies that seek to explain the limitations of the women’s movement is more convincing than are those that seek only to describe the general features of that movement. -- This info is not mentioned in the passage --> INCORRECT

2. The passage suggests that Godineau would be likely to agree with which one of the following statements about Marie Gouze’s Declaration of the Rights of Women?
The key words in the question is Godineau and Marie Gouze’s Declaration of the Rights of Women, so we will look up in para 2: The first, up to mid-1792, involved those women who wrote political tracts . Typical of their orientation to theoretical issues—in Godineaus’s view, without practical effect—is Marie Gouze’s Declaration of the Right of Women

(A) This work was not understood by many of Gouze’s contemporaries. -- this info is not mentioned in para 2 --> INCORRECT
(B) This work indirectly inspired the formation of independent women’s political clubs. -- this info is not mentioned in para 2 --> INCORRECT
(C) This work had little impact on the world of political action. -- Godineaus views this work as without practical effect --> CORRECT
(D) This work was the most compelling produced by a French woman between 1789 and 1792. -- this info is not mentioned in para 2 --> INCORRECT
(E) This work is typical of the kind of writing French women produced between 1793 and 1795. -- this info is not mentioned in para 2 --> INCORRECT

3. According to the passage, which one of the following is a true statement about the purpose of the women’s political clubs mentioned in line 20?
The key words in the question is women’s political clubs. we find this info in para 2: The emergence of vocal middle-class women’s political clubs marks the second phase. Formed in 1791 as adjuncts of middle-class male political clubs, and originally philanthropic in function, by late 1792 independent clubs of women began to advocate military participation for women.
(A) These clubs fostered a mass women’s movement. -- not mentioned --> INCORRECT
(B) These clubs eventually developed a purpose different from their original purpose. -- this passage says that the women's clubs was formed in 1791 as adjuncts of middle-class male political clubs, and originally philanthropic in function, then later in 1792 these clubs served to support military participation for women --> women's clubs changed from their initial function --> CORRECT
(C) These clubs were founder to advocate military participation for women. -- I was confused in this choice. It turned to be incorrect :(
(D) These clubs counteracted the original purpose of male political clubs. -- this info is not true --> INCORRECT
(E) These clubs lost their direction by the time of the famine of 1795. -- not mentioned --> INCORRECT

4. The primary function of the first paragraph of the passage is to:
(A) outline the author’s argument about women’s roles in Frances between 1789 and 1795 -- the para does not mention about women's roles --> INCORRECT
(B) anticipate possible challenges to the findings of the recent studies of women in France between 1789 and 1795 -- the para does not mention or predict about the challenges to the findings of recent studies --> INCORRECT
(C) summarize some long-standing explanations of the role of individual women in France between 1789 and 1795 -- the para does not summarize the explanations of the role of women; in fact, it gives the context for the recent studies to occur --> INCORRECT
(D) present a context for the discussion of recent studies of women in France between 1789 and 1795 -- this is true; the last sentence of this para mentions the recent studies and the rest of the passage is dedicated to explain the content of the recent studies --> CORRECT
(E) characterize various eighteenth-century studies of women in France -- this para does not characterize --> INCORRECT

5. The passage suggests that Landes and Badinter would be likely to agree with which one of the following statements about the women’s movement in France in the 1790s?
The key words are Landes and Badinter, we find this info in para 3: For Landes and Badinter, the necessity of women’s having to speak in the established vocabularies of certain intellectual and political tradition diminished the ability of the women’s movement to resist suppression
(A) The movement might have been more successful if women had developed their own political vocabularies. -- from the para, we know that when women have to speak in the established vocabularies of certain intellectual and political tradition, their ability to resist suppression is diminished. so we can infer that their movement would be more successful if they use their own vocab --> CORRECT
(B) The downfall of the movement was probably unrelated to it alliance with Jacobin men. -- not mentioned --> INCORRECT
(C) The movement had a great deal of choice about whether to adopt a Rousseauist political vocabulary. -- not mentioned --> INCORRECT
(D) The movement would have triumphed if it had not been suppressed by military means. -- not mentioned --> INCORRECT
(E) The movement viewed a Rousseauist political tradition, rather than a Jacobin political ideology, as detrimental to its interests. -- not mentioned --> INCORRECT

6. In the context of the passage, the word “cost” in line 63 refers to the
And in the case of Landes and Badinter, the reader is left with a sobering awareness of the cost to the women of the Revolution of speaking in borrowed voices.

we must come back to para 3 to find out the info relating to Landes and Badinter, women of the Revolution of speaking, and here is the sentence contains this info: For Landes and Badinter, the necessity of women’s having to speak in the established vocabularies of certain intellectual and political tradition diminished the ability of the women’s movement to resist suppression. -- the cost is the diminished ability of the women's movement to resist suppression.

(A) dichotomy of private roles for women and public roles for men -- not true according to our analysis
(B) almost nonexistent political participation of women before 1789 -- not true according to our analysis
(C) historians’ lack of differentiation among various groups of women -- not true according to our analysis
(D) political alliances women made with radical Jacobin men -- not true according to our analysis
(E) collapse of the women’s movement in the 1790s -- this is what we have found -- CORRECT

7. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with
(A) criticizing certain political and intellectual traditions
(B) summarizing the main points of several recent historical studies and assessing their value -- this is exactly what we have from the initial reading of the passage -- see the passage structure above
(C) establishing a chronological sequence and arguing for its importance
(D) comparing and contrasting women’s political activities before and after the French Revolution
(E) reexamining a long-held point of view and isolating its strengths and weaknesses
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Re: LSAT5 [#permalink] New post 10 May 2011, 02:59
Mytake:--
1) D
2) C
3)C
4) D
5) A
6) E
7) B
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Re: LSAT5 [#permalink] New post 11 May 2011, 08:03
i think question 3 in this passage is the question most people get wrong.
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Re: LSAT5 [#permalink] New post 11 May 2011, 08:08
garimavyas wrote:
i think question 3 in this passage is the question most people get wrong.

yeah, it's quite tricky. choice C contains the similar words in the passage. if not read closely, one is easily trapped.

good passage, btw.

thank you, garimavyas :)
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Re: Women's participation in the revolutionary events in France [#permalink] New post 24 Dec 2011, 07:19
I too got Q3 wrong.

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Re: Women's participation in the revolutionary events in France [#permalink] New post 27 Dec 2011, 17:27
with u crick20002002
qn 3 got wrong.
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Re: Women's participation in the revolutionary events in France   [#permalink] 27 Dec 2011, 17:27
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