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Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal idea of the

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Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal idea of the [#permalink] New post 04 Jul 2008, 05:26
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Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal idea of the economic market when he said that the free enterprise system is the most efficient economic system. Maximum freedom means maximum productiveness; our “openness” is to be the measure of our stability. Fascination with this ideal has made Americans defy the “Old World” categories of settled possessiveness versus unsettling deprivation, the cupidity of retention versus the cupidity of seizure, a “status quo” defended or attacked. The United States, it was believed, had no status quo ante. Our only “station” was the turning of a stationary wheel, spinning faster and faster. We did not base our system on property but opportunity—which meant we based it not on stability but on mobility. The more things changed, that is, the more rapidly the wheel turned, the steadier we would be. The conventional picture of class politics is composed of the Haves, who want a stability to keep what they have, and the Have-Nots, who want a touch of instability and change in which to scramble for the things they have not. But Americans imagined a condition in which speculators, self-makers, runners are always using the new opportunities given by our land. These economic leaders (front-runners) would thus be mainly agents of change. The nonstarters were considered the ones who wanted stability, a strong referee to give them some position in the race, a regulative hand to calm manic speculation; an authority that can call things to a halt, begin things again from compensatorily staggered “starting lines.”
“Reform” in America has been sterile because it can imagine no change except through the extension of this metaphor of a race, wider inclusion of competitors, “a piece of the action,” as it were, for the disenfranchised. There is no attempt to call off the race. Since our only stability is change, America seems not to honor the quiet work that achieves social interdependence and stability. There is, in our legends, no heroism of the office clerk, no stable industrial work force of the people who actually make the system work. There is no pride in being an employee (Wilson asked for a return to the time when everyone was an employer). There has been no boasting about our social workers—they are merely signs of the system’s failure, of opportunity denied or not taken, of things to be eliminated. We have no pride in our growing interdependence, in the fact that our system can serve others, that we are able to help those in need; empty boasts from the past make us ashamed of our present achievements, make us try to forget or deny them, move away from them. There is no honor but in the Wonderland race we must all run, all trying to win, none winning in the end (for there is no end).

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) criticize the inflexibility of American economic mythology
(B) contrast “Old World” and “New World” economic ideologies
(C) challenge the integrity of traditional political leaders
(D) champion those Americans whom the author deems to be neglected
(E) suggest a substitute for the traditional metaphor of a race

2. According to the passage, “Old World” values were based on
(A) ability
(B) property
(C) family connections
(D) guild hierarchies
(E) education

3. In the context of the author’s discussion of regulating change, which of the following could be most probably regarded as a “strong referee” (line 30) in the United States?
(A) A school principal
(B) A political theorist
(C) A federal court judge
(D) A social worker
(E) A government inspector

4. The author sets off the word “Reform” (line 35) with quotation marks in order to
(A) emphasize its departure from the concept of settled possessiveness
(B) show his support for a systematic program of change
(C) underscore the flexibility and even amorphousness of United States society
(D) indicate that the term was one of Wilson’s favorites
(E) assert that reform in the United States has not been fundamental

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author most probably thinks that giving the disenfranchised “a piece of the action” (line 38) is
(A) a compassionate, if misdirected, legislative measure
(B) an example of Americans’ resistance to profound social change
(C) an innovative program for genuine social reform
(D) a monument to the efforts of industrial reformers
(E) a surprisingly “Old World” remedy for social ills

6. Which of the following metaphors could the author most appropriately use to summarize his own assessment of the American economic system (lines 35-60)?
(A) A windmill
(B) A waterfall
(C) A treadmill
(D) A gyroscope
(E) A bellows

7. It can be inferred from the passage that Woodrow Wilson’s ideas about the economic market
(A) encouraged those who “make the system work” (lines 45-46)
(B) perpetuated traditional legends about America
(C) revealed the prejudices of a man born wealthy
(D) foreshadowed the stock market crash of 1929
(E) began a tradition of presidential proclamations on economics

8. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?
I. What techniques have industrialists used to manipulate a free market?
II. In what ways are “New World” and “Old World” economic policies similar?
III. Has economic policy in the United States tended to reward independent action?
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) II and III only

9. Which of the following best expresses the author’s main point?
(A) Americans’ pride in their jobs continues to give them stamina today.
(B) The absence of a status quo ante has undermined United States economic structure.
(C) The free enterprise system has been only a useless concept in the United States.
(D) The myth of the American free enterprise system is seriously flawed.
(E) Fascination with the ideal of “openness” has made Americans a progressive people.
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Re: Try this monster RC [#permalink] New post 04 Jul 2008, 07:04
Notes:
Para1: US economy discussed. People love change.
Keywords: Max Freedom -> Max Productiveness, Openness -> Stability, Defying settled possessiveness by unsettling deprivation.

Para2: Change is not always good. Quite work not honored.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) criticize the inflexibility of American economic mythology
Exactly. First passage author creates the background, then in second passage author rejects the system.

(B) contrast “Old World” and “New World” economic ideologies
Although this has happened at 1 or 2 place but not the primary passage.

(C) challenge the integrity of traditional political leaders
Nowhere the integrity of leader is questioned. As a whole, system is blamed but not specific group of people.

(D) champion those Americans whom the author deems to be neglected
Nope. This is done but again it is not the primary purpose.

(E) suggest a substitute for the traditional metaphor of a race
Nope. This is done but again it is not the primary purpose. Author is not interested in creating a metaphor for race, he/she is more interested in discussing US economy, which happens to be metaphor of race. Moreover nowhere we can assume that US economy is traditional metaphor for race.

2. According to the passage, “Old World” values were based on

Para1 says “We did not base our system on property but opportunity”

(A) ability
No. This is US system.

(B) property
Yes.

(C) family connections
Passage is about economic issues not about social issues

(D) guild hierarchies
This is not discussed in relation to old world.

(E) education
Passage is about economic issues not about social issues

3. In the context of the author’s discussion of regulating change, which of the following could be most probably regarded as a “strong referee” (line 30) in the United States?
Here we are talking about economic authority.
(A) A school principal
No way related to economic. A school principal cannot halt economic affairs.

(B) A political theorist
A political theorist might predict something however on its own he is unable to halt or start the economy.

(C) A federal court judge
Hold it.

(D) A social worker
No way related.

(E) A government inspector
Hold it.

Between a Judge and Inspector, Judge is higher authority. He can definitely stop and start the thing. So answer should be C.

4. The author sets off the word “Reform” (line 35) with quotation marks in order to

Para2 says ““Reform” in America has been sterile”

(A) emphasize its departure from the concept of settled possessiveness
Nope infact author is implicitly supporting old world theories and attacking US situation.

(B) show his support for a systematic program of change
Author is against not in support.

(C) underscore the flexibility and even amorphousness of United States society
Author is not in favor.

(D) indicate that the term was one of Wilson’s favorites
Author does not say it is Wilson’s favorite.

(E) assert that reform in the United States has not been fundamental
Exactly that is point made by author.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author most probably thinks that giving the disenfranchised “a piece of the action” (line 38) is

Para2 says “the extension of this metaphor of a race, wider inclusion of competitors, “a piece of the action,” as it were, for the disenfranchised”. Reading further we know that author is criticizing this concept and not praising it.

(A) a compassionate, if misdirected, legislative measure
This is not related to legislative measure.

(B) an example of Americans’ resistance to profound social change
Exactly negative in meaning as well as author intends.

(C) an innovative program for genuine social reform
Author is against this concept so chances are he won’t accept this as genuine social reform.

(D) a monument to the efforts of industrial reformers
Author is not in favor of this concept.

(E) a surprisingly “Old World” remedy for social ills
This is not related to old world.

6. Which of the following metaphors could the author most appropriately use to summarize his own assessment of the American economic system (lines 35-60)?

This whole passage in centered around “Race” but better thing than treadmill we can use for race/running continuously.

(A) A windmill
Windmill stops when there is no air.

(B) A waterfall
This is natural situation not man created as the US economy is.

(C) A treadmill
Exact match.

(D) A gyroscope
Nope.

(E) A bellows
Nope.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that Woodrow Wilson’s ideas about the economic market

As we know author is against the US system, so he must have written it around some bad situation.

(A) encouraged those who “make the system work” (lines 45-46)
He is against it.

(B) perpetuated traditional legends about America
Yep that is what passage as a whole is doing.

(C) revealed the prejudices of a man born wealthy
He does not talk about such prejudice.

(D) foreshadowed the stock market crash of 1929
Quite possible. However it cannot be inferred.

(E) began a tradition of presidential proclamations on economics
Presidential proclamations will usually support countries policy not defy it.

8. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?
I. What techniques have industrialists used to manipulate a free market?
II. In what ways are “New World” and “Old World” economic policies similar?
III. Has economic policy in the United States tended to reward independent action?

Quite a few instances III is discussed. So it is true. So we are left with C and E. However nowhere is passage similarities of old world and new world is discussed although there difference are discussed.

(A) I only
No

(B) II only
No

(C) III only
Yes

(D) I and II only
No

(E) II and III only
No

9. Which of the following best expresses the author’s main point?

(A) Americans’ pride in their jobs continues to give them stamina today.
Author is against this not in favour.

(B) The absence of a status quo ante has undermined United States economic structure.
The absence has helped rather than undermined system. Although author is against this system.

(C) The free enterprise system has been only a useless concept in the United States.
Author does not it is useless system. It might have yielded some good results.

(D) The myth of the American free enterprise system is seriously flawed.
Exactly this is what author saying.

(E) Fascination with the ideal of “openness” has made Americans a progressive people.
Author is against this not in favour.



Please post the OAs.
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Re: Try this monster RC [#permalink] New post 04 Jul 2008, 08:52
Notes :
Para1
Woodrow Wilson - the free enterprise system is the most efficient economic system.
- Maximum freedom means maximum productiveness; our “openness” is to be the measure of our stability
- Fascination with this ideal has made Americans defy the “Old World” categories
Para2
“Reform” in America - been sterile
- because it can imagine no change
- change possible only thru race, wider inclusion of competitors, “a piece of the action,”
-our only stability is change, America seems not to honor the quiet work
-There is no honor but in the Wonderland race we must all run, all trying to win, none winning in the end (for there is no end).

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) criticize the inflexibility of American economic mythology

(B) contrast “Old World” and “New World” economic ideologies
>>>“Reform” in America - been sterile
- because it can imagine no change
(C) challenge the integrity of traditional political leaders
>>>OOS

(D) champion those Americans whom the author deems to be neglected
>>>The author mentions "our stability is change ". "quiet work achieves social interdependence and stability" .He uses example of neglected- clerks to support his point.

(E) suggest a substitute for the traditional metaphor of a race
>>The author talks about Free economic systems and why America lacks reform. He does not intend to change terminologies.

2. According to the passage, “Old World” values were based on
(A) ability
(B) property
(C) family connections
(D) guild hierarchies
(E) education

“Old World” categories of settled possessiveness versus unsettling deprivation, the cupidity of retention versus the cupidity of seizure,

-Indicate ability

A

3. In the context of the author’s discussion of regulating change, which of the following could be most probably regarded as a “strong referee” (line 30) in the United States?
(A) A school principal
(B) A political theorist
(C) A federal court judge
(D) A social worker
(E) A government inspector

a strong referee to give them some position in the race, a regulative hand to calm manic speculation; an authority that can call things to a halt, begin things again from compensatorily staggered “starting lines.”


4. The author sets off the word “Reform” (line 35) with quotation marks in order to
(A) emphasize its departure from the concept of settled possessiveness
(B) show his support for a systematic program of change
(C) underscore the flexibility and even amorphousness of United States society
(D) indicate that the term was one of Wilson’s favorites
(E) assert that reform in the United States has not been fundamental
“Reform” in America - been sterile
- because it can imagine no change


5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author most probably thinks that giving the disenfranchised “a piece of the action” (line 38) is
(A) a compassionate, if misdirected, legislative measure
(B) an example of Americans’ resistance to profound social change
(C) an innovative program for genuine social reform
(D) a monument to the efforts of industrial reformers
(E) a surprisingly “Old World” remedy for social ills

“Reform” in America - been sterile
- because it can imagine no change
- change possible only thru race, wider inclusion of competitors, “a piece of the action,”

6. Which of the following metaphors could the author most appropriately use to summarize his own assessment of the American economic system (lines 35-60)?
(A) A windmill
(B) A waterfall
(C) A treadmill
(D) A gyroscope
(E) A bellows
-There is no honor but in the Wonderland race we must all run, all trying to win, none winning in the end (for there is no end).
>>>When you run on a track you reach a destination =>mobility
but when you run on a treadmill you dont have a destination.There is no end =>stationary

7. It can be inferred from the passage that Woodrow Wilson’s ideas about the economic market
(A) encouraged those who “make the system work” (lines 45-46)
our only stability is change, America seems not to honor the quiet work that achieves social interdependence and stability. There is, in our legends, no heroism of the office clerk, no stable industrial work force of the people who actually make the system work.
(B) perpetuated traditional legends about America
>>>wilson's ideas are about free market
(C) revealed the prejudices of a man born wealthy
>>>no info to support this answer choice
(D) foreshadowed the stock market crash of 1929
>>>no info to support this answer choice
(E) began a tradition of presidential proclamations on economics
>>>no info to support this answer choice

8. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions?
I. What techniques have industrialists used to manipulate a free market?
II. In what ways are “New World” and “Old World” economic policies similar?
III. Has economic policy in the United States tended to reward independent action?
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) II and III only
II -Fascination with this ideal has made Americans defy the “Old World” categories of settled possessiveness versus unsettling deprivation, the cupidity of retention versus the cupidity of seizure
III- America seems not to honor the quiet work that achieves social interdependence and stability
E

9. Which of the following best expresses the author’s main point?
(A) Americans’ pride in their jobs continues to give them stamina today.
>>>We have no pride in our growing interdependence, in the fact that our system can serve others, that we are able to help those in need; empty boasts from the past make us ashamed of our present achievements, make us try to forget or deny them, move away from them.
(B) The absence of a status quo ante has undermined United States economic structure.
>>>The United States, it was believed, had no status quo ante.But the author did not divulge into details to explain with the status quo helped or did not help US
(C) The free enterprise system has been only a useless concept in the United States.
>>>Nope.Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal idea of the economic market when he said that the free enterprise system is the most efficient economic system
(D) The myth of the American free enterprise system is seriously flawed.
>>>True.We have no pride in our growing interdependence, in the fact that our system can serve others, that we are able to help those in need; empty boasts from the past make us ashamed of our present achievements, make us try to forget or deny them, move away from them.There is no honor but in the Wonderland race we must all run, all trying to win, none winning in the end (for there is no end).

(E) Fascination with the ideal of “openness” has made Americans a progressive people.
>>>False.We have no pride in our growing interdependence, in the fact that our system can serve others, that we are able to help those in need; empty boasts from the past make us ashamed of our present achievements, make us try to forget or deny them, move away from them.There is no honor but in the Wonderland race we must all run, all trying to win, none winning in the end (for there is no end).
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Re: Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal idea of the [#permalink] New post 11 Mar 2012, 22:00
According to the passage, “Old World” values were based on
(A) ability
(B) property
(C) family connections
(D) Guild hierarchies
(E) education


The author writes - We did not base our system on property but opportunity.
This statement clearly knock out the answer (b) - Property.
the system did not based on property.
Answer should be (A)

Could any one please clarify?
Re: Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal idea of the   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2012, 22:00
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