With only 5 percent of the world’s population, United States citizens consume 28 percent of its nonrenewable resources, drive more than one-third of its automobiles, and use 21 times more water per capita than Europeans do.
D) Despite having
E) Although accounting for
A is wrong; the modified noun here is "citizens" and not "United States"
B seems idiomatically wrong
C is wrong: United States citizens are not
5% of the population, they rather account
D is same as C; Citizens do not have 5% of the world population; rather the United States
E is correct