Writing of the Iroquois nation, Smith has argued that through the chiefsâ€™ council, tribal chiefs traditionally maintained complete control over the political affairs of both the Iroquois tribal league and the individual tribes belonging to the league, whereas the sole jurisdiction over religious affairs resided with the shamans. According to Smith, this division was maintained until the late nineteenth century, when the dissolution of the chiefsâ€™ council and the consequent diminishment of the chiefsâ€™ political power fostered their increasing involvement in religious affairs.
However, Smith fails to recognize that this division of power between the tribal chiefs and shamans was not actually rooted in Iroquois tradition; rather, it resulted from the Iroquoisâ€™ resettlement on reservations early in the nineteenth century. Prior to resettlement, the chiefsâ€™ council controlled only the broad policy of the tribal league; individual tribes had institutionsâ€”most important, the longhouseâ€”to govern their own affairs. In the longhouse, the tribeâ€™s chief influenced both political and religious affairs.
24. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) question the published conclusions of a scholar concerning the history of the Iroquois nation
(B) establish the relationship between an earlier scholarâ€™s work and new anthropological research
(C) summarize scholarly controversy concerning an incident from Iroquois history
(D) trace two generations of scholarly opinion concerning Iroquois social institutions
(E) differentiate between Iroquois political practices and Iroquois religious practices
25. It can be inferred that the author of the passage regards Smithâ€™s argument as
(A) provocative and potentially useful, but flawed by poor organization
(B) eloquently presented, but needlessly inflammatory
(C) accurate in some of its particulars, but inaccurate with regard to an important point
(D) historically sound, but overly detailed and redundant
(E) persuasive in its time, but now largely outdated
26. The author of the passage implies that which of the following occurred after the Iroquois were resettled on reservations early in the nineteenth century?
(A) Chiefs became more involved in their tribesâ€™ religious affairs.
(B) The authority of the chiefsâ€™ council over the affairs of individual tribes increased.
(C) The political influence of the Iroquois shamans was diminished.
(D) Individual tribes coalesced into the Iroquois tribal league.
(E) The longhouse because a political rather than a religious institution.
27. Which of the following best expresses an opinion presented by the author of the passage?
(A) Smith has overstated the importance of the political role played by Iroquois tribal chiefs in the nineteenth century.
(B) Smith has overlooked the fact that the Iroquois rarely allowed their shamans to exercise political authority.
(C) Smith has failed to explain why the chiefsâ€™ council was dissolved late in the nineteenth century.
(D) Smith has failed to acknowledge the role prior to the nineteenth century of the Iroquois tribal chiefs in religious affairs.
(E) Smith has failed to recognize that the very structure of Iroquois social institutions reflects religious beliefs.
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