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X: When a rare but serious industrial accident occurs, [#permalink]
25 Aug 2009, 08:00
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X: When a rare but serious industrial accident occurs, people respond by believing that such accidents are becoming more frequent. This belief is irrational. After all, being dealt four aces in a hand of poker, a rare event, hardly increases one's chances of being dealt four aces in a future hand.
Y: To the contrary, the belief is rational because it results in people's sensing a danger to themselves not previously sensed and taking precautionary actions to prevent similar accidents in the future.
Y's attempt to counter X's claim is best described by which of the following?
(A) It questions the aptness of the analogy drawn by X. (B) It makes apparent X's failure to consider how people vary in their responses to a serious accident. (C) It shifts the basis for judging rationality to considerations of utility. (D) It offers an alternative explanation of why people form incorrect beliefs. (E) It challenges X's assumption that the occurrence of a single event is sufficient to change a belief.
C seems to be correct. Y does base rationality on the usefulness of the situation. He says that the feeling of fear among the workers is rational or justified because then, they will take extra precautions to avoid the accident. In other words, Y says that because the fear helps the workers to keep safe, it is okay to be fearful. X, on the other hand says, it is not okay to be fearful of a rare accident that may never happen again. X says Rare event---- not okay to be fearful. Y says------- Rare or not rare, if it helps to be fearful, its okay to be fearful. Therefore, both have differing perspectives to rationality.
Can somebody of whom have choosen C explain the last part of the answer choice "rationality to considerations of utility"?
What does considerations of utility mean here?
X says "Taking very RARE event as very FREQUENT is irrational." In other words, "We need not be too SENSITIVE to ONE TIME event." Y counters "one time event AWAKENS people's sense of danger, thus We can take precautionary actions." In other words, "the belief is USEFUL for preventing similar accidents in the future"