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Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y

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Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2003, 11:18
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Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are often observed to be preceded by X, suggests that X, not Y, may be the cause of Z.

Which of the following further observations would best support the new report's suggestion?

(A) In cases where X occurs but Y does not, X is usually followed by Z.
(B) In cases where X occurs, followed by Y, Y is usually followed by Z.
(C) In cases where Y occurs but X does not, Y is usually followed by Z.
(D) In cases where Y occurs but Z does not, Y is usually preceded by X.
(E) In cases where Z occurs, it is usually preceded by X and Y.
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New post 03 Aug 2003, 10:07
yes, but why? give some comments.
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New post 05 Aug 2003, 13:36
Therre are two possibilities here:
one is: X to y, then y to Z, in this case, y is the cause of z, not X. the other one is: x to Y, X to Z, in this case, x is the cause of both y and z, but Z and Y have no connection, they just appear after X.
To prove that X is the cause of Z, you need to prove that the second case, which means with or without Y, X can result in Z. So A is the answer.
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Re: Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2011, 11:13
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Re: Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y [#permalink]

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New post 12 Dec 2011, 23:13
stolyar wrote:
Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y and Z are often observed to be preceded by X, suggests that X, not Y, may be the cause of Z.

Which of the following further observations would best support the new report's suggestion?

(A) In cases where X occurs but Y does not, X is usually followed by Z. => this answer remove the possibility that Y cause Z
(B) In cases where X occurs, followed by Y, Y is usually followed by Z. => weaken the suggestion
(C) In cases where Y occurs but X does not, Y is usually followed by Z. => weaken the suggestion stronger
(D) In cases where Y occurs but Z does not, Y is usually preceded by X. => not explain X cause Z
(E) In cases where Z occurs, it is usually preceded by X and Y. => this answer cannot be used to answer the paradox when X, y, and Z happen simultaneously

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Re: Y has been believed to cause Z. A new report, noting that Y   [#permalink] 12 Dec 2011, 23:13
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