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# Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly

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09 Dec 2012, 23:09
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Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behaviour generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.
Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow‟s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson‟s argument?
(A) Dr. Ladlow‟s evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rates will perform in a maze is inaccurate
(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.
(D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a maze
(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.

OA
[Reveal] Spoiler:
soon
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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10 Dec 2012, 00:19
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Most people should be able to narrow down to B and E.

B: This is close, but on examination is incorrect. Anson says that responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect. However, this answer choice says that psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved. Therefore, it is possible that the psychologists can conclude that their theories cannot be disproved without new evidence being considered, but may be disproved in the face of new evidence. Insufficient.
E: This is the correct answer as it paraphrases Anson's response.

E it is.
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10 Dec 2012, 00:29
Thats what I thought. But was shatterred to see that it was incorrect.
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11 Dec 2012, 03:25
Hmmm.....ok, if I look at E in the light that it reverses what the last line says then it appears to be incorrect.

i.e. All responsible scientists => new evidence can disprove their theories
is not the same as
Psychologists who believe new evidence can disprove their theories => responsible scientists

In this light, B seems to be better. However, the earlier issue I outlined with B still holds. Tough question, IMO.
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11 Dec 2012, 07:05
Marcab

I do not think there can be any challenges to E.....
Rightly said i narrowed down to B and E.
But B i do not think is an inference.
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11 Dec 2012, 08:14
Don't u think B talk about in general.
Psychologist who did certain experiment ===> cannot responsibly conclude about disapproval of those theory.

We can't draw general conclusion based on one experiment.

More discussion needed...
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11 Dec 2012, 08:47
Marcab wrote:
Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behaviour generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.
Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow‟s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson‟s argument?
(A) Dr. Ladlow‟s evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rates will perform in a maze is inaccurate
(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.
(D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a maze
(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.

I'd say B.

I think it's not E, because we cannot assume that what defines a responsible psychologist is only the fact that s/he accepts the possibility that new evidence will show that their theory is incorrect. Someone who accepts this possibility might not be a responsible psychologist for other reasons (necessary but not sufficient condition).
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12 Dec 2012, 16:01
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Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behaviour generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.
Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow‟s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson‟s argument?

(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved

(B) is essentially paraphrasing the paragraph, which says we know that all responsible scientists admit that their theories may be incorrect. A scientist who thinks otherwise, such as Dr. Ladlow, is not being responsible. Therefore, if you are studying rat behavior (a la Ladlow) you cannot responsibly conclude that your theory is irrefutable.

(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.

(E) is definitely very tempting. But is it something that we could reasonably infer? Let's break down the structure of the argument: All responsible psychologists are ALWAYS accept that their theories may be incorrect. All X --->Y. (E), however, is saying All Y ---> X. This is not the same thing. Just because a psychologist accepts that their theories may be incorrect does not make that person responsible. Surely, there are other criteria. For instance, a responsible psychologist must also be ethical and organized. On the other hand, if we know a psychologist to be responsible (X), then he/she will definitely accept that their respective theory may be incorrect (Y).
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22 Feb 2013, 05:34
Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behaviour generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.
Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow‟s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.

Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson‟s argument?

(A) Dr. Ladlow‟s evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rates will perform in a maze is inaccurate. We can't question the validity of premise
(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved. Within the scope of the para. so, could be correct
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations. Change of tone by using "never"
(D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a mazeIswat
(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.
Reversing the Cause & effect.

Therefore, IMO B. It took me 2.3 min to ans this question
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30 Jun 2014, 08:51
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06 Jul 2015, 22:29
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07 Jul 2015, 00:52
Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behaviour generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.

Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow's evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.

Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson's argument?

(A) Dr. Ladlow's evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze is inaccurate Anson argues that further studies could show that Ladlow's theory is inaccurate. We can't say that he's saying the theory is currently inaccurate.
(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved This is essentially a paraphrase of the last sentence.
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.Responsibility in this discussion pertains to awareness that theoretical explanations can be disproved, not to the ability to produce correct theoretical explanations.
(D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a maze The importance of responsibility is not related to making or not making predictions about this very specific topic. Responsibility refers to the level of confidence of psychologists in those predictions.
(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.This excludes the possibility that there are other criteria to be considered a responsible psychologist. The original statement implies that this acceptance is part of other characteristics of a responsible psychologist.
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