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Senior Manager
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28 Jun 2008, 07:14
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(53) There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures - up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand people among different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.

To suuport a conclusion that much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures, it would be most important to establish which of the following?

(A) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary.

(B) The variation is unrelated to factors (other than the surgical procedures themseleves) that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered.

(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.

OA is B, My guess is between A or E : (

(57) Meteorite explision in the Earth's atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with approximately the force of a 12-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century.

The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected circumstances is unpredictable.

Which of the following conclusion can most properly be drawn, if the statement above are true, about a highly automated nuclear missile defense system controlled by a complex computer program?

(A) Within a cenury after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a nuclear war.

(B) The system would be destroyed if an expoosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth's atmosphere.

(C) It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a nuclear weapon.

(D) Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on the location of the blast.

(E) It is not certain what the system's response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers did not plan for such a contingency.

OA is E.
-------------------

Can someone give me some lights. I don't even understand what it is asking.
If you have any questions
New!
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28 Jun 2008, 07:50
Premise1: There is a great deal of geographical variation in the frequency of many surgical procedures
Premise2: up to tenfold variation per hundred thousand people among different areas in the numbers of hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies.
Conclusion: much of the variation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures

Rephrased question: What is strengthening the conclusion?

So any option which removes alternative explanation for variation is strengthening the conclusion. B is indeed saying that Variations are not related to other factors. So That makes conclusion more valid that Variation is indeed due to Surgical factors.

(A) A local board of review at each hospital examines the records of every operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary.
Weaken the questions. Because it says a board sits and decide whether to go for Surgery. So it is not a deliberate unnecessary thing.

(E) With respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies are representative of surgical procedures in general.
This says "unnecessarily, hysterectomies, prostatectomies, and tonsillectomies" represents surgical procedure. But not explaining why the variation. So this cannot be out option.
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28 Jun 2008, 07:58
Premise1: Meteorite explision in the Earth's atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with approximately the force of a 12-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century.
Premise2: The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected circumstances is unpredictable.

(A) Within a century after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a nuclear war.
Wrong. Premise2 says response of system is unexpected, so you cannot say for sure it can start a war.

(B) The system would be destroyed if an expoosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth's atmosphere.
Wrong. There is no correlation between explosion of meteorite and destruction of system. Take e.g. System might be thousands of mile away from place where explosion happened then does not make any sense.

(C) It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a nuclear weapon.
Wrong. System might be able to do so but this is cannot be supported or refuted as no such information is given in the passage.

(D) Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on the location of the blast.
Wrong. For unexpected events system response is unpredictable.

(E) It is not certain what the system's response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers did not plan for such a contingency.
Exactly. "if its designers did not plan for such a contingency" implies "explosion of a large meteorite" this is an unexpected event. "It is not certain what the system's response" implies "response of the system is unexpected". So proper inference.
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28 Jun 2008, 20:28
abhijit_sen wrote:
Premise1: Meteorite explision in the Earth's atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with approximately the force of a 12-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century.
Premise2: The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected circumstances is unpredictable.

(A) Within a century after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a nuclear war.
Wrong. Premise2 says response of system is unexpected, so you cannot say for sure it can start a war.

(B) The system would be destroyed if an expoosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth's atmosphere.
Wrong. There is no correlation between explosion of meteorite and destruction of system. Take e.g. System might be thousands of mile away from place where explosion happened then does not make any sense.

(C) It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a nuclear weapon.
Wrong. System might be able to do so but this is cannot be supported or refuted as no such information is given in the passage.

(D) Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on the location of the blast.
Wrong. For unexpected events system response is unpredictable.

(E) It is not certain what the system's response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers did not plan for such a contingency.
Exactly. "if its designers did not plan for such a contingency" implies "explosion of a large meteorite" this is an unexpected event. "It is not certain what the system's response" implies "response of the system is unexpected". So proper inference.

Thanks a lot, abhijit
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