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# 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning

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e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2934
Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 04 Mar 2013, 11:44
Hi Folks,

Here comes the detailed explanation for this exercise question:

Although Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, providing Internet access through wearable technology, it has approached Warby Parker, an e-commerce eyeglass company, to help it design more fashionable frames.

Meaning Analysis
• This sentence presents contrast.
• Google has launched glasses – wearable technology that provides internet access
o These glasses contain a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen.
o These glasses are not very attractive
• Even though Google has LAUNCHED these glasses, it has approached Warby Parker so that Warby Parker can help it design more fashionable frames.
o Warby Parker is an online eyeglass company.

Errors in Original Sentence
• Clause 1: Although Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, providing Internet access through wearable technology,
• Clause 2: it has approached Warby Parker, an e-commerce eyeglass company, to help it design more fashionable frames.

1. All the S-V pairs are accounted for.
2. All the verbs are written correctly in present perfect tense.
3. The pronoun reference is correct.
4. The use of comma + verbing modifier “providing…” and other modifiers is correct.
5. There are no errors in the sentence.

A. Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen to provide Internet access through wearable technology, it has approached Warby Parker: Correct Choice.

B. ‘unchic’ glasses have been launched with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, Google has provided Internet access through wearable technology and has approached Warby Parker : Incorrect
Error 1 – The verb of Clause 1 has been turned into a passive voice. With this change in voice, now the choice fails to say WHO has lunched the glasses.
Error 2 – Per the original sentence, the contrast is – Although Google has launched glasses, it has approached WP to help it design better frames. Per this choice, the contrast is – Although unchic glasses have been launched, Google has provided Internet access through wearable technology. This contrast is illogical. Actually by launching those glasses, Google has provided Internet access. This choice has converted logical information into illogical contrasting information.

C. ‘unchic’ glasses that have a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen have been launched by Google to provide Internet access through wearable technology, Warby Parker has been approached: Incorrect.
Error - Because of change in voice, this choice now fails to convey that Google approached WB, as communicated in the original sentence.

D. Google, launching ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, has provided Internet access through wearable technology and has approached Warby Parker: Incorrect.
Error – Per this choice, there is no IC in the sentence. The contrasting information is missing here.

E. Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses that have a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen to provide Internet access through wearable technology, Warby Parker has been approached: Incorrect.
Error - The passive voice construction fails to convey the entity that has approached WP.

Takeaways
1. The correct answer choice must contain all the information presented in the original sentence.
2. The sentence must have an IC.
3. The contrasting elements must be grammatical and logical.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Originally posted by egmat on 22 Feb 2013, 21:42.
Last edited by egmat on 04 Mar 2013, 11:44, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2013, 09:14
egmat wrote:
STRATEGY 4 - CHANGE OF VOICE

Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.
A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Intended meaning from Choice A: This choice does not communicate a clear meaning. The intended meaning of the sentence from choice A can be inferred as follows:
• Some kind of sequencing is shown using the word “before”.
• Scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone
• However, due to the construction of the sentence, the event that happened prior to this event is not clearly specified. However, we can infer that the prior event may be - removing the growth hormone painstakingly from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

Thus this choice is incorrect because it does not communicate the meaning of the sentence clearly. Grammatically, this choice does not have an independent clause and hence is a fragment.

Intended meaning from Correct Choice C: Choice C corrects these errors and communicates the inferred meaning clearly. It effectively uses passive voice “it had to be painstakingly removed” to present the prior event. Note that the original sentence (choice A) does not say anything about who actually painstakingly removed the hormone from the human cadavers.

Grammatically Correct but Incorrect choice (D)– Notice how in choice D the test makers have changed the voice of one of the verbs. Now the sentence uses active voice “scientists had to painstakingly remove…”. This changes the meaning of the original sentence since it now adds new information that “scientists” actually had to remove the hormone. This information is not present in the original choice. And hence this choice by “adding” to the meaning of the sentence, changes the meaning and hence is incorrect. Carefully notice that this sentence does not have any grammatical errors.

I think there is one subtle change in meaning that was missed in the explanation. "Synthetic growth hormone" is artificial and hence cannot be removed from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. Hence, any option in which the "it" refers back to this term is flawed and can be eliminated.
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Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2934
Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2013, 06:39
agourav wrote:
egmat wrote:
STRATEGY 4 - CHANGE OF VOICE

Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.
A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Intended meaning from Choice A: This choice does not communicate a clear meaning. The intended meaning of the sentence from choice A can be inferred as follows:
• Some kind of sequencing is shown using the word “before”.
• Scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone
• However, due to the construction of the sentence, the event that happened prior to this event is not clearly specified. However, we can infer that the prior event may be - removing the growth hormone painstakingly from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

Thus this choice is incorrect because it does not communicate the meaning of the sentence clearly. Grammatically, this choice does not have an independent clause and hence is a fragment.

Intended meaning from Correct Choice C: Choice C corrects these errors and communicates the inferred meaning clearly. It effectively uses passive voice “it had to be painstakingly removed” to present the prior event. Note that the original sentence (choice A) does not say anything about who actually painstakingly removed the hormone from the human cadavers.

Grammatically Correct but Incorrect choice (D)– Notice how in choice D the test makers have changed the voice of one of the verbs. Now the sentence uses active voice “scientists had to painstakingly remove…”. This changes the meaning of the original sentence since it now adds new information that “scientists” actually had to remove the hormone. This information is not present in the original choice. And hence this choice by “adding” to the meaning of the sentence, changes the meaning and hence is incorrect. Carefully notice that this sentence does not have any grammatical errors.

I think there is one subtle change in meaning that was missed in the explanation. "Synthetic growth hormone" is artificial and hence cannot be removed from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. Hence, any option in which the "it" refers back to this term is flawed and can be eliminated.

Hi there,

Yes, you are absolutely correct in your analysis. Scientists cannot remove "synthetic growth hormones" from human organs. Hence, usage of "it" to refer to this entity is incorrect. This error has been rectified in Choice C by turning synthetic into a "to verb".

Thanks.
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning  [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2016, 21:12
warriorguy wrote:
Wishing you a Merry Christmas.

I have a doubt regarding this post.

5-strategies-that-gmat-uses-to-distort-meaning-124296-40.html#p1186163

I chose the correct answer based on the meaning and on the construction of the sentence; however, I have read that the subject should not be present in the subordinate clause (SC). Here, Although introduces subject "Google" in SC. Since pronoun it is in subject position as Google, it is clear antecedent.

Is this construction i.e. subject in SC allowed?

Merry Christmas to you too. ANY clause MUST consist of a subject and a verb. So the source from where you have read that a subordinate clause should not have a subject is definitely not a very authentic one.
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Posts: 157
Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2019, 09:37
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Here comes the detailed explanation for this exercise question:

Although Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, providing Internet access through wearable technology, it has approached Warby Parker, an e-commerce eyeglass company, to help it design more fashionable frames.

Meaning Analysis
• This sentence presents contrast.
• Google has launched glasses – wearable technology that provides internet access
o These glasses contain a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen.
o These glasses are not very attractive
• Even though Google has LAUNCHED these glasses, it has approached Warby Parker so that Warby Parker can help it design more fashionable frames.
o Warby Parker is an online eyeglass company.

Errors in Original Sentence
• Clause 1: Although Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, providing Internet access through wearable technology,
• Clause 2: it has approached Warby Parker, an e-commerce eyeglass company, to help it design more fashionable frames.

1. All the S-V pairs are accounted for.
2. All the verbs are written correctly in present perfect tense.
3. The pronoun reference is correct.
4. The use of comma + verbing modifier “providing…” and other modifiers is correct.
5. There are no errors in the sentence.

A. Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen to provide Internet access through wearable technology, it has approached Warby Parker: Correct Choice.

B. ‘unchic’ glasses have been launched with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, Google has provided Internet access through wearable technology and has approached Warby Parker : Incorrect
Error 1 – The verb of Clause 1 has been turned into a passive voice. With this change in voice, now the choice fails to say WHO has lunched the glasses.
Error 2 – Per the original sentence, the contrast is – Although Google has launched glasses, it has approached WP to help it design better frames. Per this choice, the contrast is – Although unchic glasses have been launched, Google has provided Internet access through wearable technology. This contrast is illogical. Actually by launching those glasses, Google has provided Internet access. This choice has converted logical information into illogical contrasting information.

C. ‘unchic’ glasses that have a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen have been launched by Google to provide Internet access through wearable technology, Warby Parker has been approached: Incorrect.
Error - Because of change in voice, this choice now fails to convey that Google approached WB, as communicated in the original sentence.

D. Google, launching ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, has provided Internet access through wearable technology and has approached Warby Parker: Incorrect.
Error – Per this choice, there is no IC in the sentence. The contrasting information is missing here.

E. Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses that have a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen to provide Internet access through wearable technology, Warby Parker has been approached: Incorrect.
Error - The passive voice construction fails to convey the entity that has approached WP.

Takeaways
1. The correct answer choice must contain all the information presented in the original sentence.
2. The sentence must have an IC.
3. The contrasting elements must be grammatical and logical.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

egmat : your question and Option A differs. providing, ,,and to provide. Please correct
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2019, 07:14
Dear egmat

I have one query about the below question in which A is correct:

The largest trade-book publisher in the US has announced the creation of a new digital imprint division, under which it will publish about 20 purely digital works to be sold online as either electronic books or downloadable copies that can be printed upon purchase.
A. works to be sold online as either electronic books or
B. works to sell them online, either as electronic books or
C. works and it will sell them online as either electronic books or as
D. works, and selling them online as either electronic books or as
E. works, and it will sell them online as either electronic books or

We know that "to infinitive" is used to show the purpose of the subject of the clause. For ex: "I publish my collection of stamps to be recognized as a true stamp collector". => "to be recognized" refers to the subject "I", not the "collection of stamps".
So, how I understand choice A is that the publisher will publish about 20 purely digital works for the purpose of the publisher's being sold online. In this way, choice (A) dosen't convey the intended meaning.

Is my reasoning correct?
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning   [#permalink] 14 Nov 2019, 07:14

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