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# Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2013, 16:15
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100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.

If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Last edited by Zarrolou on 08 Jul 2013, 22:57, edited 1 time in total.
Merging similar topics.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2013, 16:30
3
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sanjeebpanda wrote:
100.Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D.
69, during the reign of Vespasian
, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the
Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

I understand the sage of which as it is used for the nearest noun.Apart from that if the any prepositional phrase is there then it refers to the next closest noun.

ex:He has kept the red balls on the table,which are good our next match, and white bats in the room.

I believe here the which refers to balls.

If that is the case which in option a & c should refer to construction.

Hi,

it is not true that if you have a preposition phrase then it will modify farther noun..
which always modifies closest noun....except in few cases.

the rule is:
Relative Pronouns Modify closest nouns UNLESS
– The phrase between modified entity and modifier provides additional
– The phrase cannot be placed anywhere else
– The phrase does not create any ambiguity in meaning

few examples:
I killed the snake,which lived in the burrow behind my house.==>which clearly modifies....SNAKE.

I killed the snake with scales ,which lived in the burrow behind my house.===>here which modifies snake and not the scales...because....above conditions follow here....scales is describing snake....you cannot place anywhere else to make sense correctly.....it doesnot create any ambiguity means.....==>this means scales live behind my house....this doesnt makes sense....

now take other example.:
i killed the snake with eggs ,which lay in burrow behind my house......==>here you can see that there is ambiguity....both EGGS and SNAKE can lay in burrow...hence this version of which is wrong....

so in your question ...which correctly modifies the closest noun.....doubt only when you see that it doesnt make sense meaning wise.....and dont consider your prepositional phrase theory as a rule...

hope it helps
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2013, 17:25
egmat wrote:
Great explanation Shailesh!!

Sanjeeb, you may refer to this article for more official questions and examples:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Regards,
Payal

30. The proposed simplification of the tax code would repeal or modify a number of
popular tax breaks, including the deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so
that income tax rates could be reduced
across the board.
A. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced
B. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates can be
reduced
C. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, which includes the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

D. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so as to reduce income tax rates
E. would repeal and modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

My analysis:
Will is correct as we are not discussing about future in past and also there is no hypothetical situation(so would is out)
From B/C can is the correct choice.So the answer is B.

But can u explain me the usage of which here in option C.A number of popular tax breaks,which includes(So here if which refers to number then includes is fine but if popular tax breaks then it doesn't)..It may be silly one but I got confused..so pls help me out.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2013, 03:31
sanjeebpanda wrote:

30. The proposed simplification of the tax code would repeal or modify a number of
popular tax breaks, including the deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so
that income tax rates could be reduced
across the board.
A. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced
B. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates can be
reduced
C. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, which includes the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

D. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so as to reduce income tax rates
E. would repeal and modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

My analysis:
Will is correct as we are not discussing about future in past and also there is no hypothetical situation(so would is out)
From B/C can is the correct choice.So the answer is B.

But can u explain me the usage of which here in option C.A number of popular tax breaks,which includes(So here if which refers to number then includes is fine but if popular tax breaks then it doesn't)..It may be silly one but I got confused..so pls help me out.

hi sanjeeb ,

how can you say that which is referring to number.......which is acting as a pronoun......if replace which with number......sentence is:
number includes the deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced===>does that makes sense.....which or what type number includes that....XYZ thing...

now if you relace which with popular tax breaks:
popular tax breaks includes the deductibility of mortgage interest payments(deductibility of mortgage interest is example of tax breaks here)
===>now it does makes sense...==>so number alone doesnt have any meaning here===>so which is refering to popular tax breaks...

hope it helps
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2013, 07:55
Construction of the Roman Colosseum,which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Dear frinds
when we have a specific time........>use simple past tense(began)
which....> correctly modify preceding noun(Roman colosseum)
was.....> is a linking verb so check the parallelism
DO not seperate two verbs that reffer to one subject,with comma
in answer choice (C),the structure of sentence is grammatically correct.....>which was officially known as bla bla bla and was completed bla bla bla

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2013, 04:43
Hi,

In grammatical terms, it's this: "began" is past tense and "begun" is the past participle.

What this means in use is that if you are talking about something in the simple past tense, you would always use "began." These sentences are correct:

- I began music lessons when I was 6.
- The story began in the Colonial Period.
- Where were you when the game began?
- Our relationship began when we were in high school.

A participle can't be used all by itself as a verb. Another verb has to go with it. So you can't say something "begun." You have to say it "has begun," "had begun," "was begun," "will be begun," and so on.

"Begun" would be wrong in every one of the examples above and in any other sentence like them.

Here are some correct uses of "begun." Notice the helping verb (the auxiliary verb) that goes along with it. The verbs can be separated--such as by "not"--but they still work together.

- You cannot be seated after the play has begun.
- I have begun a shopping list.
- We have not yet begun to fight.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2013, 04:54
I get that the OA is C, but what is the difference between began and begun

hi

BEGAN VS BEGUN:

In grammatical terms, it's this: "began" is past tense and "begun" is the past participle.

What this means in use is that if you are talking about something in the simple past tense, you would always use "began." These sentences are correct:

- I began music lessons when I was 6.
- The story began in the Colonial Period.
- Where were you when the game began?
- Our relationship began when we were in high school.

A participle can't be used all by itself as a verb. Another verb has to go with it. So you can't say something "begun." You have to say it "has begun," "had begun," "was begun," "will be begun," and so on.

"Begun" would be wrong in every one of the examples above and in any other sentence like them.

Here are some correct uses of "begun." Notice the helping verb (the auxiliary verb) that goes along with it. The verbs can be separated--such as by "not"--but they still work together.

- You cannot be seated after the play has begun.
- I have begun a shopping list.
- We have not yet begun to fight.

Likewise, if you are using "had" or "have" or another auxiliary, you must use "begun" and not "began." These sentences are all wrong:

WRONG - Have you began your assignment?
WRONG - My shift had began at 3:00.
WRONG - The party has not began yet.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2013, 22:14
In most of the cases, the following pattern appears:

noun+modifier 1+modifier 2.

so, modifier 2 normally modifies (noun+ modifier 1) and dose not need to touch the noun.

however if there is no modifier 1 but a phrase which dose not modifies the noun, the pattern is wrong

I learn English well, which is spoken by many persons

this is wrong because "well" dose not modifier "English"

I learn English of this region, which is spoken by many persons.

this is correct sentence because "of this region" modifies "English"

in short, in most cases, a noun modifiers modifies "noun+noun modifier" not modifies only the noun and can not touch the noun.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2013, 07:54
I do not fully understand, when verbs need to be sequenced (one in past perfect and one in simple past) and when both can be in simple past. In this sentence, I though that when the verb "began" is in the same tense as "completed", it must definitely be wrong, because the first action should have taken place before the second action.

So why is "begun" wrong here...is it because it should have been "had begun"?

Many thanks!

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2013, 22:59
4
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zazoz wrote:

1. 'Construction' is the subject, right? so how this sentence possible : 'construction of the Roman.....began in blah blah'. My point is how the 'construction' began something?? It seems illogical to me. Shouldn't it be 'construction was begun' in 'C'? I know! I must be wrong, but I couldn't justify myself until now.

Hi zazor.

"Construction began in A.D. 69....." is 100% correct. Because "begin" is intransitive verb that is complete in itself and does not require any further elements to make its meaning complete.
For example: When I listen that song, my heart breaks ==> even though "heart" is a passive doer of action "break", but we don't need to say "my heart is broken".
Other intransitive verbs: appear, arrive, begin, break, come, cough, decrease, die, disappear, drown, fall, go, happen,.....

Quote:
2. The verb 'was completed' is passive or 'was' is a linking verb and 'completed' is the adjectives to describe 'construction'. I ask this in regard to my approach to this question; I thought that 'and' must be there, so after 'and' we need a parallel construction, so I said to myself we have 'was completed' so we must have 'was begun' to create parallelism. But when I saw the correct answer I said to myself maybe 'was completed' is not passive (I am REALLY confused) and we need 'began'. When I reached to this point of my logic my first question popped up. Now here I am with lots of paradoxes in my mind. Please help me getting rid of some annoying misunderstandings. Thanks a million.

We have to say "was completed" because "complete" is NOT a transitive verb. ==> The parallel structure in C is: the construction began .....and was completed......

Quote:
3. According to my descriptions, Why 'E' is incorrect?

E is 100% incorrect because "which" modifies " the Flavian Amphitheater" wrongly. Let ask yourself what began in A.D. 69.? the Flavian Amphitheater (the Roman Colosseum) --OR-- The construction? ==> Clearly, the construction did. Thus, "which" is a misplaced modifier --> E is wrong.

Hope it's clear.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2013, 05:55
pqhai wrote:
zazoz wrote:

1. 'Construction' is the subject, right? so how this sentence possible : 'construction of the Roman.....began in blah blah'. My point is how the 'construction' began something?? It seems illogical to me. Shouldn't it be 'construction was begun' in 'C'? I know! I must be wrong, but I couldn't justify myself until now.

Hi zazor.

"Construction began in A.D. 69....." is 100% correct. Because "begin" is intransitive verb that is complete in itself and does not require any further elements to make its meaning complete.
For example: When I listen that song, my heart breaks ==> even though "heart" is a passive doer of action "break", but we don't need to say "my heart is broken".
Other intransitive verbs: appear, arrive, begin, break, come, cough, decrease, die, disappear, drown, fall, go, happen,.....

Quote:
2. The verb 'was completed' is passive or 'was' is a linking verb and 'completed' is the adjectives to describe 'construction'. I ask this in regard to my approach to this question; I thought that 'and' must be there, so after 'and' we need a parallel construction, so I said to myself we have 'was completed' so we must have 'was begun' to create parallelism. But when I saw the correct answer I said to myself maybe 'was completed' is not passive (I am REALLY confused) and we need 'began'. When I reached to this point of my logic my first question popped up. Now here I am with lots of paradoxes in my mind. Please help me getting rid of some annoying misunderstandings. Thanks a million.

We have to say "was completed" because "complete" is NOT a transitive verb. ==> The parallel structure in C is: the construction began .....and was completed......

Quote:
3. According to my descriptions, Why 'E' is incorrect?

E is 100% incorrect because "which" modifies " the Flavian Amphitheater" wrongly. Let ask yourself what began in A.D. 69.? the Flavian Amphitheater (the Roman Colosseum) --OR-- The construction? ==> Clearly, the construction did. Thus, "which" is a misplaced modifier --> E is wrong.

Hope it's clear.

Hi pqhai,

Thank you for your detailed answers. With your explanations my concerns cleared out. The concept you explained about Intransitive verbs always apply, right? I mean when we have them in sentences we don't need further helping verb such as is, was, etc. right?

And just to be sure, in this question's parallelism (...began.....and was completed) began is active or passive? ( Regarding your explanations I would answer my question : active) If I am right, Should we have two passive construction to avoid anti-parallelism?

BTW my name tag is zazoz!

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2014, 10:39
jlgdr wrote:
Could someone please elaborate more on the (B) vs (D) split?

Would be happy to throw some Kudos out there

Cheers
J

in both the options, B and D, :
Construction of the Roman Colosseum,officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater.

"officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" is acting as modifier for Roman Colosseum and is giving more information. but if we read the sentence it gives out a meaning as "officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" is modifying "Construction of the Roman Colosseum" which is not correct. So the error can be rectified by using which/that (relative pronoun) to fix the noun.
or the sentence can be started as "Roman Colosseum,officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" - this makes sense.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 06:24
1
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Expert's post
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 09:22
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
Seems to be the correct answer choice.
- There are 2 independent clauses appropriately connected by And.
- which correctly refers the preceding noun
- modifier during is placed appropriately & is also used parallely

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 10:34
"begun" in B, D and E is incorrect. In A, "and" is missing towards the end of the option.

So, C.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 10:54
In B,D and E, officially known as is refering to 'Construction of the Roman Colosseum' as a whole. So, here 'which' is required to correctly refer to the noun Roman colosseum.
Out of A and C, A is missing the required 'and' for connecting the 2 events -beginning and completing.
C should be the OA

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 22:34
souvik101990 wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
is missing "and"

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
incorrect use of "begun"

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
ding ding ding we have an answer. same as original but includes "and"

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
changes the meaning of the sentence and is grammatically weak, also uses "begun"

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
same as above

Not sure I agree that this is a 700 question, but my answer is C

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 23:19
souvik101990 wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

the phrase "which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" is a Noun modifier for noun "Roman colosseum" so immediately after this Noun modifier, the main clause sentence must begin. In this context, another modifier or past participle 'begun' is wrong which means we can reject B, D & E.

In the original sentence 'began' must be a clause and 'was completed' too. So we must need a FANBOY connector to make it grammatically correct and parrallel

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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27 May 2015, 08:03
nischalb wrote:
Torn between A & C, still don't understand why 'and' is needed. What are the 2 independent clauses in ths sentence?

Independent Clauses:

Construction of the Roman Colosseum,
which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, ---------------------Modifier
began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, ---------------- 1st IC
was completed a decade later ----------------2nd IC require to separate from 1st IC by connector AND.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2015, 14:30
KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

On Going through the intended meaning of the sentence you feel that Roman Colosseum was officially known as Flavin Amphitheater . If We remove the Noun phrase "Which" then the word Flavin Amphitheater appears to be used for Construction of R.C.. So Which must be there in the sentance.
Between A & C . Now In A the two clauses are added without proper sentance structuture. there must be a conjunction . Analyze by your self
A. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later.
C. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,and was completed a decade later.

Obviously C is correct.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the   [#permalink] 04 Jul 2015, 14:30

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