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# Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2015, 09:09
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mahakmalik wrote:
please tell me about how "and" is connecting two independent clauses and what are those clauses?

Hi I am happy to help.

Analyze by your self The two clauses connected by the word and are
1. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69
2. was completed a decade late

A. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later.
C. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,and was completed a decade later.

Obviously C is correct.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 23:22

Just reading the question stem makes it clear that it needs an "AND" at the end of the underlined portion because it is connecting the two clauses:- the main clause and the dependent clause. Therefore the decision point here is the presence of a coordinating non-contrasting conjunction} ---> "AND" in the correct sentence.

Therefore A, D are out because these options do not have the proper conjunction "AND"
Option B, C and E remaining.
Option B and E use "begun" - WRONG TENSE

Option C Uses the correct tense "Began"- Simple Past for begin as well as the proper conjunction "AND"

KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

OG16 SC114

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Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 19 Sep 2016, 10:14, edited 5 times in total.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2016, 12:54
KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

OG16 SC114

C is the correct answer. But, I have a question about C.
here the correct sentence is:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
The core sentence is:
Construction began in A.D. 69 and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
1) The first part before 'and' is used as active voice but the 2nd part after 'and' is used as passive voice. Is there any rules in GMAT to use active voice and passive voice simultaneously?
2)
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2016, 16:48
Split1) Parallelism. "began...and was completed" is the correct construction. A, B and D are out

Split2) Participle = begun = cannot be used alone as a verb. B,D and E are out.

Split3) Mofidiers. I would say after reading the saga on on this question that answer C is more grammatically correct vs the other answers, E for instance. the wordm "which...." or "officially known.." both modify the word Construction. This is concluded on an exemption to the "touch rule" where logic defeats hard-core rules.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2017, 15:03
ramyagmatclub wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
[Reveal] Spoiler: C

Doubt is: There are two actions that happened in the past: a) began in A.D. 69 and b) was completed a decade later. If there are two actions that happen in a past and in a sequence, then the 1st action in the sequence should be a past perfect tense Vs past tense. So "began" should be "had begun". Is that not correct?

Dear ramyagmatclub,

I'm happy to respond.

Also, if you do post a GMAT SC, please underline the prompt properly. I added the underlining to your post.

Finally, to answer your question: we have to use the past perfect tense to indicate an earlier past action if there is no other evidence in the sentence that would allow us to figure this out. If there are other markers in the sentence that allow us to figure out the time sequence, then the GMAT often considers it redundant to use the past perfect tense also. In this sentence, there are other time phrases (the year "A.D. 69" and "a decade later") which make the time sequence absolutely unambiguous. No need for the past perfect.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2017, 06:21
reena.phogat wrote:
bay010 wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

The answer is C. But I am not able to discern as to how the part after ',and' is an Independent clause. The phrase 'was completed a decade later' does not have a subject. How is it a independent clause?

2 verbs can exist in a clause if they are connected with AND and OR. Then their subject will same
Otherwise SV pair must be equal to number of clauses in sentence.
Here 2nd clause must have SV pair...But subject is not there so to correct it either we can add a subject or we can connect 2 verbs with and if their subject is same...

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I get your point. But when you join two verbs you use only 'and' and when you join to independent clauses/thoughts you use ',and'. Please correct me if I am wrong. Thanks

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2017, 07:05
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bay010

C. Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

One note is that the parallel- markers should join two equal things, either clauses, phrases or just words such as nouns etc, etc. In this case, "began in A.D. 69", a predicate is joined with "was completed " another predicate. So it is okay IMO. In addition, in two part symmetries, if the subject of the first part logically holds good for the second part too, then an ellipsis is permitted as parallel enough
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2017, 08:42
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Begun can never be used without a helping verb. B,D and E are out.
A has incorrect structure which is fixed by C by the use of 'and'

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2017, 17:17
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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03 May 2017, 02:57
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
--> lack of comma (,) between Vespasian and it

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
--> run-on and awkward.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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16 May 2017, 07:23
KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

OG16 SC114

A A conjunction such as "and" is needed here between "began" and "was constructed" since the subject has two verbs.
B This sentence incorrectly implies that the "Amphitheater" was "begun in A.D. 69."
C Correct.
D The subject is repeated: "Construction [...] it..."
E This sentence incorrectly implies that the "Amphitheater" was "begun in A.D. 69."

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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16 May 2017, 09:26
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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, ----lacking conjunction between the two predicates

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and -----This is a fragment with the first part lacking a verb
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and --- Correct choice.

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it --- The first part is a fragment and the second part is fused with the first part without a punctuation mark.

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and ----- The first part before 'and ' is a fragment.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2017, 03:59
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, - missing "and" after Vespasian - 2 verbs joined with a comma is incorrect .. "began in A.D. 69, ...., was completed.."
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and - since there is no relative pronoun before "officially", this means "officially known.." incorrectly modifies "construction" + "begun" needs a helping verb
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and - CORRECT
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it - same problem as B + "it" is incorrectly placed as meaning changes
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and - same problems as B
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2017, 13:13
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in
A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened
the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of
Vespasian,
Use of past tense “was” means that “RC was earlier known as flavian amphitheater” but NOT anymore…
Also, before the second verb “was completed” an “and” is required

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
"begun" is incorrect (as per OG)...

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of
Correct …

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
If we remove the modifier “officially known as …” from the sentence, it reads like this “ The construction of the RC during the reign of Vespasian it was completed …”
Totally meaningless…

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of
Vespasian, and
A run on sentence :
The relative clause beginning with “which was…” marks the beginning of a new clause and thus leave the Main Clause “the construction of …” without a Verb
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2017, 07:08
Dear,
I read through all the explanations of this post and do agree that C is the most suitable answer. But as per chapter 10 of SC Manhattan (page 197), we do not use a comma before "and" to separate two verbs that have the same subject. Clearly, C uses "comma + and" to separate two verbs. Could you pls explain why? Thank you:D

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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2017, 03:04
2
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duckcanfly wrote:
Dear,
I read through all the explanations of this post and do agree that C is the most suitable answer. But as per chapter 10 of SC Manhattan (page 197), we do not use a comma before "and" to separate two verbs that have the same subject. Clearly, C uses "comma + and" to separate two verbs. Could you pls explain why? Thank you:D

Hi duckcanfly ,

Welcome to GMATClub.

I understand your point. But whenever we want to use any additional information within a sentence, we use two commas such that if you remove the stuff between those two commas, your sentence must hold the meaning.

Let's understand this in this sentence.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

Did you find the meaning now? I have two phrases used here. I can eliminate them and conclude the final sentence as follows:

Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69 and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

I hope that makes sense.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2017, 03:59
Imo C
A is illogical as it is suggesting that reign of Vespasian was completed wrong a decade later
B the modifier is modifying the whole preceding clause that does not make any sense as

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2017, 04:01
arvind910619 wrote:
Imo C
A is illogical as it is suggesting that reign of Vespasian was completed wrong a decade later
B the modifier is modifying the whole preceding clause that does not make any sense as the construction was not known as amphitheatre.
C is our answer because it has relative pronoun and use "and " to join two verbs.

D is wrong

E is wrong

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arvind910619 wrote:
Imo C
A is illogical as it is suggesting that reign of Vespasian was completed wrong a decade later
B the modifier is modifying the whole preceding clause that does not make any sense as

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2017, 18:26
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

If we ignore the fluff, the flaw becomes apparent. The original sentence is missing a conjunction before the clause 'was completed a decade later'. The sentence hides this flaw very well by using several modifiers.

The corrected trimmed version is: Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69 and was completed a decade later.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2017, 01:13
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

1) Construction (subject)………………………….began (verb 1) and was completed (verb 2)
These two verbs are not connected properly and thus this choice is incorrect.
2) Which clause refers to Roman Colosseum
3) ‘during the reign.’ Refers to the clause before it.
4) ‘during the reign of Titus’ refers to was completed a decade later.
5) Who clause clearly refers to Titus

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
Incorrect

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
Incorrect because of the use of begun.

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
Correct choice.

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
Incorrect.There is no need of and before begun which is the first verb.

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
Flavian Amphitheater begaun in A.D. 69 does not make sense. Also begun is not the correct verb form here.

Begun vs. begin

Begun always needs has, have, or had before it in order to function as a verb. Therefore in option B, begun works as a verb-ed modifier and we know that verb-ed modifies the noun preceding it. It is illogical to say that Amphitheatre began itself in A.D. 69.

Therefore begin is correct here.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the   [#permalink] 15 Aug 2017, 01:13

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