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With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J

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With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom.

A. Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with

B. Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its

C. Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has

D. Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its

E. Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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C, D, E OUT. consider as and consider to be are unidiomatic

Between A and B

A fails parallelism. I need another "has" to make it parallel.

B is left. :wink:
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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This is what I think:

With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Farenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and, with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom

A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with
And is not required here. If we use AND then there should be a verb to support parallelism as in - Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, AND, with 60 square miles of water IS thought to be frozen from top to bottom

B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its
Correct answer.
Think of it like this: Europa, its 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom, has long been considered far too cold to support life.
This is a type of modifier I think although I'm not sure what the construction is called.

C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has
'Considered as' is wrong.

D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its
'Considered as' is wrong.
This sentence is a fragment, it does not have a verb - considered is not a proper verb, its a participle.

E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have
This sentence is a fragment, it does not have a verb - considered is not a proper verb, its a participle.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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seekmba wrote:
Hey sidhu4u,

can you shed some light on the word 'thought' in option (A)....is it not a VERB? Why do we need 'IS' when we have the word 'thought'?


In option A the AND introduces a parallel structure - both left and right should be parallel.

left: Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life
right: Europa thought to be frozen from top to bottom (I've removed the with 60 miles of water that modifies Europa)

In the above, left and right are not parallel. To make them parallel:
Europa has long been considered || Europa is thought to be frozen

'thought' by itself is not a verb here. If a sentence is to be constructed with 'thought' alone as a verb then I think (notice I've used the present tense of 'thought' as a verb here) it should look like: Europa thought that she was frozen from top to bottom - this construction is silly as it gives life to Europa.
The author is trying to say 'Everyone thinks that Europa is frozen from top to bottom' which is why we have 'Europa is thought to be (by everyone) frozen..'.

Hope you get what I'm trying to say...Please let me know if you need further clarity. Also, there's a good explanation of this topic here.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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Hey All,

I was asked by PM to weigh in on this one, though sid has already hit some important points. Here we go.


With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Farenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and, with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom

I'd start by saying that generally GMAT prefers the idiom "estimate to be", rather than "estimate at", even though it's not underlined.

A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with
Sid hit this just right. If we use "and", we're setting up parallel clauses, so we'd need some new verb to make it work.

B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its
The term Sid was looking for is "participial phrase". "thought" is a past participle, meaning it opens up a modifying clauses, in this case modifying "its 60 square miles of water".

C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has
"Considered as" is wrong, and even though this creates a parallel AND adds a verb, it's still clunky. We want a modifier because we're creating an example of how it's too cold to support life (it's water is frozen all the way through), not making a new point.

D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its
'Considered as' is wrong. This also makes the same mistake as answer choice A. In addition, as Sid said, it has no main verb after "Europa", because considered here is a participle (like "thought" later on), which is not a full verb.

E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have
Sid nailed it. We have the participle "considered" again, and "to have" is just an infinitive riffing off of "considered", like "to be" in the middle portion. With no main verb in the whole sentence, it can't work.

Well done, Sid, and I hope I cleared up any lingering questions.

-t
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2010, 09:30
Hey Sid,

If you're really using all the rules without naming them, that should be enough. But I find categorization is dependent on really having the names of the categories in your head, otherwise it's too much gut. I don't know how you're scoring on SC, but if you take our free practice test and your SC percent is under 60/65% correct, definitely consider pushing it a little harder and learning all the terminology. If you're doing better than that, however, it means that whatever you're doing is working, so keep doing it!

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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2010, 09:57
Hey Tommy,

I'd done the free test quite a while back and scored 67% in verbal. After that I bought the Manhattan sc guide 4th ed. and worked quite a bit on SC.
Recently I did the 25 questions in the SC question bank that is included with the purchase of the SC strategy guide and scored 21/25. Seems pretty ok, however the one thing I'm concerned about - All four mistakes were on 500-600 level questions where I narrowed down answers to two choices and then skipped the right choice for very vague reasons such as the right choice looking too simple or of an idiomatic construction I'd never come across.. :)...Weird? I felt that this was slightly because I was aggressively looking for mistakes based on rules and that if I'd have gone with my gut feelings I'd have got those right.
Have you noticed this kind of an issue with any students, if so, how do I overcome this?

Btw, the Manhattan SC guide truly rocks!. I was never weak at verbal but the concepts this book taught me really redefined my approach to grammar. Hats off to you guys..

Sid
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2010, 10:24
Thanks Tommy, Sid for the explanation - I've wondered about this problem.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2010, 14:04
Hey Sid,

To take this piece by piece:



I'd done the free test quite a while back and scored 67% in verbal. -- Nice! Though definitely still room for improvement.

Recently I did the 25 questions in the SC question bank that is included with the purchase of the SC strategy guide and scored 21/25.
-That's a solid percentage.

All four mistakes were on 500-600 level questions where I narrowed down answers to two choices and then skipped the right choice for very vague reasons such as the right choice looking too simple or of an idiomatic construction I'd never come across.
--Vague reasons are tough. You should always be able to verbalize the exact reason you're crossing something off, even if it's meaning or concision ("I'm crossing out B because it's unclear what the modifier is referring to," for example).

I felt that this was slightly because I was aggressively looking for mistakes based on rules and that if I'd have gone with my gut feelings I'd have got those right.
--Remember, if you were aggressively look for mistakes based on rules, then you cross something off for a "vague reason", you're not using the rules. So you can hardly use the rules for that. If you think an issue is idiomatic or meaning, then you have to go with your gut/inherent understanding. But just recognize when you're doing it, and don't mix rule-based process of elimination with gut-based process of elimination (And always do as much of the former as possible before switching to the latter).

Btw, the Manhattan SC guide truly rocks!. I was never weak at verbal but the concepts this book taught me really redefined my approach to grammar. Hats off to you guys..
--Thanks! Glad it helped!

-t
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2010, 06:56
Hey Sid, is it possible to upload the 25 questions in the SC question bank in this forum?
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2010, 09:49
Hey Sid,

I'd prefer if you didn't do that. While the forums are meant to be a place for people to discuss any material out there (including ours), it's not a place to simply share out all the material we have just so others can see it. Seek, if you want full access to all that stuff, all you need to do is buy the SC guide, which is very reasonably priced! Or, if you're really insistent, merely by searching the forums (here and elsewhere), you can probably find many of our questions discussed somewhere or another. : )

-tommy
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2010, 10:01
Yeah Seekmba, I got those 25 questions along with the purchase of the SC guide so I'd be violating copyrights if I were to post those questions here. I'd suggest you go ahead and get the SC guide (1st preference) or the Number properties guide (2nd preference). Both these books are top notch and you also get access to the corresponding question banks (25 questions each) and 1 year's access to the 6 online MGMAT tests.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2011, 15:28
rephrase all

jupiter's moon europa has long been considered far too cold to support life (AS far is wrong), ITS (belonging to Europa) 60 square miles bla bla bla...........with surface temperatures...bla bla bla.......
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2011, 20:33
Let me try.

IMO B.

(b). Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its


Already we conclude that Europa is not suitable for life and a comma and more explanation adds more info. So apt and looks correct.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2011, 20:41
B through POE. 'Considerd as' and 'considered to be' are wrong. A is clearly wrong for 'and with'
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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nelz007 wrote:
With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom.

(A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with

(B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its

(C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has

(D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its

(E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have

will provide OA after explanations.

Answer must be B
First of all we do have to consider the correct usage of "With".
ex- "With 4 childrens at home, Rachel barely has any spare time for her hobbies".
Notice that the two clauses of the above sentence are reinforcing into each other.
So the sentence must complete after the second clause. If it does'nt, then the third clause must be a modifier, modifying the preceding clause.
B does it correctly.
", its 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom" is an absolute phrase that is modifying " Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life".
Whats the OA and the source?
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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Yes; the answer must be B

We can ditch C, D and E since all these three choices are using gmatically wrong idiom considers as and consider to be
Between A and B, we can follow Marcab’s point.

But, I have different question to GMAT PILL? What exactly is the text trying to convey by saying that Europa has 60 square miles of frozen water from top tobottom. Is it referring to the depth of the ice from top to bottom? Then, does that mean 60 miles of depth frozen water all over its surface? . Or does it mean that Europa has only 60 square miles of ice, less than an eight miles square. Normally, I thought ice is measured in cubic volumes and not in square volumes. Just for my curiosity, please.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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First look - misplaced modifier, grammatical construction

(A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with Wrong - "and with" must combine two like prepositional phrases, or "and" must precede an independent clause.

(B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its Best answer - I dislike how the predicate splits the subject and its modifying phrase (appositive), though it seems that the GMAT employs it frequently to throw off test takers. This really was a last resort.

(C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has Wrong - "with 60 square miles" should modify Europa, not be a predicate and demand equality to "too cold to support life." In a way, the last modifier should describe "too cold to support life" and not life.

(D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its Wrong - "and its" must combine two like phrases, or "and" must precede an independent clause.

(E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have Wrong - fragment.

IMO B
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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anujag24 wrote:
I am still looking for reasons on use of clause starting with "its" in choice B. Is this correct usage?

With B, the sentence would be:

With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom.

The construct its 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom is not a clause.

This construct is basically an absolute modifier: Noun (its 60 square miles of water) + Noun modifier (thought to be frozen from top to bottom, in this case, a past participial phrase).

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses Absolute modifiers, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2014, 23:21
Thanks EducationAsile.

I have got the point that the phrase can modify the noun. I have one more query. If we change "considered as" to "considered" in choice C then do we have any other errors in choice C?


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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J   [#permalink] 13 Jul 2014, 23:21

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