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# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

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Manager
Joined: 18 Feb 2007
Posts: 249
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2007, 07:42
faifai0714 wrote:
sidbidus wrote:
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?p=112952&highlight=&sid=28cd307a8b7eb1f075aa2b090cf05a77

The OA is A.

Even i feel that it should be D.

No, the correct answer is D.

Well, there is nothing in the sentence that indicates the agreement is still valid today.

The sentence is about the agreement in 1972, which is already the past.

fine then, past perfert verbs happen before some event in the past.
Past perfect verbs do not continue past (or remain true) after the date of the simple past action.

The purpose of the agreement in the stimulus is to change some policy.
If the municipalities did not dump any phosphates into the lake after the date of the agreement, what would be the purpose of the agreement??
Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Apr 2006
Posts: 495
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2007, 09:08
hmmm I always thought this one was D as well - I will look in the OG tonight - I believe the reasoning cookiemonster stated is correct but maybe we are both wrong.
VP
Joined: 06 Feb 2007
Posts: 1012
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2007, 16:43
I looked in the OG 11th Edition, and the asnwer is D
Intern
Joined: 23 Apr 2007
Posts: 7
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 May 2007, 14:54
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
Senior Manager
Joined: 06 Jul 2004
Posts: 439
Location: united states
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 May 2007, 21:24
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

I understand that B and C are wrong for using "phosphate amount". E is wrong for using "allowed for dumping".

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Manager
Joined: 04 Oct 2006
Posts: 73
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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14 May 2007, 03:31
I think that the answer D is the best.

I understand A as if municipalities were no more able to dump the phosphates into the Great Lakes before the agreement.
Manager
Joined: 28 Aug 2006
Posts: 157
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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14 May 2007, 19:22
Another D.

Past Perfect "had been" should not be used here.
Intern
Joined: 22 Nov 2006
Posts: 12
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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14 May 2007, 22:12
D is the right ans. past perfect had been should not be used and other choices have obvious flaws.
Senior Manager
Joined: 24 Sep 2006
Posts: 258
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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14 May 2007, 22:38
D it is
agreement happened in past so reduced is correct usage
it restricts now so 'are allowed to' is correct

fyi, OG 11, Q62
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AimHigher

Manager
Joined: 09 Nov 2006
Posts: 127
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 May 2007, 02:51
This example convinced me not to trust "alternative" sources like 1000 SC where A is correct answer, while OG clearly states that OA is D.

Originally posted by AdrianG on 16 May 2007, 02:35.
Last edited by AdrianG on 16 May 2007, 02:51, edited 1 time in total.
Manager
Joined: 24 Jan 2006
Posts: 227
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, Entrepreneurship
WE: General Management (Manufacturing)
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 May 2007, 09:37
OG states the explanation as.... "since the law was passed in the past & dumping continues in the present"............

if we take this into consideration..........then definitly D.........
though my ans was A

BUT..... how can we assume anything (that muncipalities r still dumping) on the GMAT?
it is quite possible that after the law was passed, muncipalities never ever dumped anything into lakes................

how r v supposed to guess????? can anyone pls enlighten??
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Manager
Joined: 14 May 2007
Posts: 172
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 May 2007, 09:47

can some one explain why D ?? why should we take "are allowed to"
Intern
Joined: 07 Mar 2007
Posts: 3
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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Updated on: 19 Jun 2007, 13:30
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

A. reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
B. reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been dumping
C. reduces the amount of phosphates that municipalities have been allowed to dump
D. reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
E. reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Originally posted by ahneil on 18 Jun 2007, 20:11.
Last edited by ahneil on 19 Jun 2007, 13:30, edited 2 times in total.
Intern
Joined: 07 Mar 2007
Posts: 3
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2007, 11:19
The answer from OG 11 is D and the explanation is:

The past tense reduced is used to describe a past action, and the present tense are allowed is used to describe the present situation since the dumping continues into the present.

However, the answer from SC 1000 is A. I also think why not A. Can anyone explain why we don't use past perfect tense here?
VP
Joined: 03 Apr 2007
Posts: 1237
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2007, 11:20
ahneil wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

A. reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
B. reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been dumping
C. reduces the amount of phosphates that municipalities have been allowed to dump
D. reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
E. reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

A

This SC is testing for past perfect tense.
Anaction that happened in the past (say X) and something which happened before X (say Y)

here :reduced - X
had been allowed to dump - Y

CEO
Joined: 21 Jan 2007
Posts: 2694
Location: New York City
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2007, 19:09
ahneil wrote:
The answer from OG 11 is D and the explanation is:

The past tense reduced is used to describe a past action, and the present tense are allowed is used to describe the present situation since the dumping continues into the present.

However, the answer from SC 1000 is A. I also think why not A. Can anyone explain why we don't use past perfect tense here?

Past perfect tense shows an action that continued from a point in the past and ends at a later point in the past. There is no indication that the dumping ended. It was just reduced. Therefore, the OG explanation is correct. (How can u trust the SC1000 answer over the OG one!?!)
Intern
Joined: 09 Apr 2007
Posts: 12
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2007, 19:28
The ansewer id D, 'are' indicates that its an ongoing activity!!!
Manager
Joined: 17 May 2007
Posts: 161
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2007, 04:05
It can't be A because the activity is still going on...

A indicates that an acitivity happened for a some period of time in the past.

Manager
Joined: 11 Mar 2007
Posts: 142
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2007, 14:20
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
Manager
Joined: 08 Oct 2006
Posts: 202
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2007, 14:29
D.
treaty took place in past and the the results of the treaty still hold so D seems to be alright.
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce   [#permalink] 19 Jul 2007, 14:29

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