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# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

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Manager
Joined: 18 Jun 2004
Posts: 100
Location: san jose , CA

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01 Sep 2004, 00:51
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Last edited by broall on 30 Aug 2017, 18:37, edited 3 times in total.
Too many pages for this topic. Do not try to unlock this post again!
VP
Joined: 03 Apr 2007
Posts: 1288
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 10:06
lordw wrote:
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pls. if anyone can clarify the difference between options A and B.
Tks!

D

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping

Both are trying to use past perfect tense . A and B are incorrect for several reasons.

reduced - event at time x say 1972
had been XYZ - event at time before x 1970

allowing - present tense
allowed - simple past
had been allowed - past perfect
had been dumping - not past perfect .It represents a continous action
Senior Manager
Joined: 25 Nov 2006
Posts: 258
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 14:55
goalsnr wrote:
lordw wrote:
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pls. if anyone can clarify the difference between options A and B.
Tks!

D

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping

Both are trying to use past perfect tense . A and B are incorrect for several reasons.

reduced - event at time x say 1972
had been XYZ - event at time before x 1970

allowing - present tense
allowed - simple past
had been allowed - past perfect
had been dumping - not past perfect .It represents a continous action

It's A, check the meaning of the sentence, had been means since the law was put in place, the companies reduced the amount of phosphates and continue till today ...past perfect is the tense that makes sense....

In D, its simple present, what about since 1972 till now?
Current Student
Joined: 02 Aug 2007
Posts: 185
Schools: Wharton
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 15:13
Please post the correct OA. The OA is NOT A. Verify your sources.

The OA is D as can be verified by OG 11th edition, question #62.

Note that the 1000SC is not regarded as a reliable OA. The only reliable sources by definition are the OG and GMATprep.
Senior Manager
Joined: 25 Nov 2006
Posts: 258
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 16:04
Ashwin_Mohan wrote:
goalsnr wrote:
lordw wrote:
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pls. if anyone can clarify the difference between options A and B.
Tks!

D

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping

Both are trying to use past perfect tense . A and B are incorrect for several reasons.

reduced - event at time x say 1972
had been XYZ - event at time before x 1970

allowing - present tense
allowed - simple past
had been allowed - past perfect
had been dumping - not past perfect .It represents a continous action

It's A, check the meaning of the sentence, had been means since the law was put in place, the companies reduced the amount of phosphates and continue till today ...past perfect is the tense that makes sense....

In D, its simple present, what about since 1972 till now?

Never mind!!!!
Manager
Joined: 22 Jun 2008
Posts: 104
Schools: Darden School of Business (Class of 2012)
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 08:20
Tks.!

I check with the OG and the answer is A.

So, how do we notice that the dumping continues into the present when in the original sentence says "had been"?

sterny wrote:
Please post the correct OA. The OA is NOT A. Verify your sources.

The OA is D as can be verified by OG 11th edition, question #62.

Note that the 1000SC is not regarded as a reliable OA. The only reliable sources by definition are the OG and GMATprep.
Director
Joined: 26 Jul 2007
Posts: 534
Schools: Stern, McCombs, Marshall, Wharton
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 08:47
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

The agreement happened in the past, so reduces is wrong which takes out C and E.

It didn't physically reduce the phosphate amount they were dumping, that would mean an agreement was walking around stopping municipalities from dumping. So B is out.

That leaves A and D.

The municipalities were allowed to dump a certain amount back in 1971. That amount was changed in 1972 and for all we know continues today.

D indicates that it reduces the amount of phosphates they are allowed to dump today.

That leaves A.
Senior Manager
Joined: 26 Mar 2008
Posts: 306
Location: Washington DC
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 09:19
One more for A. On other thought we can think we entire sentence is in past tense. then why would we need to think present tense for something that was actually happening before the sentence. In more simpler words agreement in 1972 is mentioned in the past tense so why we would use present for the allowed dumping amount, that had been in effect before 1972 agreement.
Director
Joined: 01 Jan 2008
Posts: 500
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 09:55
I also selected A, while practising using the OG. The answer in the OG is D. The reason they mentioned is that the agreement is still active and dumping continues into the present.

But how are we to know that the dumping continues till now...
Director
Joined: 26 Jul 2007
Posts: 534
Schools: Stern, McCombs, Marshall, Wharton
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 12:35
bhatiagp wrote:
I also selected A, while practising using the OG. The answer in the OG is D. The reason they mentioned is that the agreement is still active and dumping continues into the present.

But how are we to know that the dumping continues till now...

Here is my theory.

It happened in the past and continues on into the future because there is nothing in the sentence indicating it stops.

So A would be correct if it stated:

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump [until 1980].
Manager
Joined: 22 Jun 2008
Posts: 104
Schools: Darden School of Business (Class of 2012)
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 07:05
1st sorry, the correct one. is D.

2nd Tks for the clarification!

gixxer1000 wrote:
bhatiagp wrote:
I also selected A, while practising using the OG. The answer in the OG is D. The reason they mentioned is that the agreement is still active and dumping continues into the present.

But how are we to know that the dumping continues till now...

Here is my theory.

It happened in the past and continues on into the future because there is nothing in the sentence indicating it stops.

So A would be correct if it stated:

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump [until 1980].
Current Student
Joined: 28 Dec 2004
Posts: 3314
Location: New York City
Schools: Wharton'11 HBS'12
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 07:17
GUYS just be careful not to un-learn your concepts based on some given OA..stick with OG as your bible when you need the guidance..
VP
Joined: 17 Jun 2008
Posts: 1328
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2008, 07:03
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

A 1000 SC question but im not convinced with the OA
Need brain storming
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Senior Manager
Joined: 02 Dec 2007
Posts: 432
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2008, 07:13

Two different events in the past, hence A
Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Aug 2008
Posts: 369
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2008, 07:15
is it D?

in A (allowed to had been dump) could mean that they were allowed to dump only once
and had been should be before reduced
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Senior Manager
Joined: 02 Dec 2007
Posts: 432
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2008, 07:37
hmmm, I think I agree with Spiridion now . Two different events dont make much sense here.
VP
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Posts: 1019
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2008, 07:48
I remember seeing this one on GMATPrep. OA is D
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Manager
Joined: 12 Oct 2008
Posts: 103
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2008, 08:06
OA is D ?
I don't see anything wrong with A. Event took place in 1972, if it said last year, or recently I'd think about D. Spiridon, had been goes with allowed what, yes, happened only once (probably by signing prior agreement). And tense sequence is fine in A - past action - signing new agreement in 1972 changed smth what happened before that - had been allowed.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2008, 08:38
linau1982 wrote:
OA is D ?
I don't see anything wrong with A. Event took place in 1972, if it said last year, or recently I'd think about D. Spiridon, had been goes with allowed what, yes, happened only once (probably by signing prior agreement). And tense sequence is fine in A - past action - signing new agreement in 1972 changed smth what happened before that - had been allowed.

The municipalities "are" allowed because that is happening today also.
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VP
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Posts: 1328
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2008, 10:49
Guys i posted this question since i had doubts on C as the option !!

Any agreement dated any date of any past time imposes rules on the curent activity of present time
WHY cant the answer BE C ?
CAN ANYONE CLARIFY !!!!!!
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VP
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Posts: 1019
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2008, 11:00
You can find the Official Explanation in OG11 Qno 62. (Pg 689)

It says: D. Correct. The past tense reduced is correctly used in this sentence to describe a past action, and the present tense are allowed is used to describe the present situation.

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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2008, 11:00

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