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# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

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Manager
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01 Sep 2004, 00:51
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Last edited by Skywalker18 on 28 Feb 2017, 22:01, edited 1 time in total.
Corrected the underlined portion
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2008, 02:31
my 2 cents:

i agree with the above comment. the amount of dumping allowed has reduced as a result of the legislation,which def means it was reduced only from a level which had existed before the legislation. so choosing D alters the intent .
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2008, 03:18
D is the correct answer here because A uses "had been" to mean as if the municipalities were allowed to dump in the past but not now.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2008, 16:33
Clearly D here. Googi explanation seems perfect
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2008, 16:46
miquel is correct. I remember seeing it on the OG and just found from OG that D is the correct answer.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2008, 17:19
I just double checked the OG Q62 - the OA is definitely D.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2008, 20:17
Here is the OE from OG:

Verb form + Idiom

An agreement that occured in 1972 is correctly described with the past tense verb "reduced". Since the dumping continues into the present, the past perfect verb "had been allowed" should instead be the present "are allowed".
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2008, 00:37
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2008, 17:02
Hi rpmodi,

gmatter contrains several errors. This particular question has been discussed several times and the answer is infact D.

I have been working with the Gmatter App pretty extensively, is there a list somewhere of the errors you mentioned?

Or updates to the app? Thanks!
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 09:44
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pls. if anyone can clarify the difference between options A and B.
Tks!
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 09:56
i think the answer is C This is a action which started in the past, and is still continuing, hence past participle.

therefore ...reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump....
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 10:06
lordw wrote:
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pls. if anyone can clarify the difference between options A and B.
Tks!

D

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping

Both are trying to use past perfect tense . A and B are incorrect for several reasons.

reduced - event at time x say 1972
had been XYZ - event at time before x 1970

allowing - present tense
allowed - simple past
had been allowed - past perfect
had been dumping - not past perfect .It represents a continous action
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 14:55
goalsnr wrote:
lordw wrote:
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pls. if anyone can clarify the difference between options A and B.
Tks!

D

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping

Both are trying to use past perfect tense . A and B are incorrect for several reasons.

reduced - event at time x say 1972
had been XYZ - event at time before x 1970

allowing - present tense
allowed - simple past
had been allowed - past perfect
had been dumping - not past perfect .It represents a continous action

It's A, check the meaning of the sentence, had been means since the law was put in place, the companies reduced the amount of phosphates and continue till today ...past perfect is the tense that makes sense....

In D, its simple present, what about since 1972 till now?
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 15:13
Please post the correct OA. The OA is NOT A. Verify your sources.

The OA is D as can be verified by OG 11th edition, question #62.

Note that the 1000SC is not regarded as a reliable OA. The only reliable sources by definition are the OG and GMATprep.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2008, 16:04
Ashwin_Mohan wrote:
goalsnr wrote:
lordw wrote:
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pls. if anyone can clarify the difference between options A and B.
Tks!

D

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping

Both are trying to use past perfect tense . A and B are incorrect for several reasons.

reduced - event at time x say 1972
had been XYZ - event at time before x 1970

allowing - present tense
allowed - simple past
had been allowed - past perfect
had been dumping - not past perfect .It represents a continous action

It's A, check the meaning of the sentence, had been means since the law was put in place, the companies reduced the amount of phosphates and continue till today ...past perfect is the tense that makes sense....

In D, its simple present, what about since 1972 till now?

Never mind!!!!
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 08:20
Tks.!

I check with the OG and the answer is A.

So, how do we notice that the dumping continues into the present when in the original sentence says "had been"?

sterny wrote:
Please post the correct OA. The OA is NOT A. Verify your sources.

The OA is D as can be verified by OG 11th edition, question #62.

Note that the 1000SC is not regarded as a reliable OA. The only reliable sources by definition are the OG and GMATprep.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 08:47
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

The agreement happened in the past, so reduces is wrong which takes out C and E.

It didn't physically reduce the phosphate amount they were dumping, that would mean an agreement was walking around stopping municipalities from dumping. So B is out.

That leaves A and D.

The municipalities were allowed to dump a certain amount back in 1971. That amount was changed in 1972 and for all we know continues today.

D indicates that it reduces the amount of phosphates they are allowed to dump today.

That leaves A.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 09:19
One more for A. On other thought we can think we entire sentence is in past tense. then why would we need to think present tense for something that was actually happening before the sentence. In more simpler words agreement in 1972 is mentioned in the past tense so why we would use present for the allowed dumping amount, that had been in effect before 1972 agreement.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 09:55
I also selected A, while practising using the OG. The answer in the OG is D. The reason they mentioned is that the agreement is still active and dumping continues into the present.

But how are we to know that the dumping continues till now...
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2008, 12:35
bhatiagp wrote:
I also selected A, while practising using the OG. The answer in the OG is D. The reason they mentioned is that the agreement is still active and dumping continues into the present.

But how are we to know that the dumping continues till now...

Here is my theory.

It happened in the past and continues on into the future because there is nothing in the sentence indicating it stops.

So A would be correct if it stated:

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump [until 1980].
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2008, 07:05
1st sorry, the correct one. is D.

2nd Tks for the clarification!

gixxer1000 wrote:
bhatiagp wrote:
I also selected A, while practising using the OG. The answer in the OG is D. The reason they mentioned is that the agreement is still active and dumping continues into the present.

But how are we to know that the dumping continues till now...

Here is my theory.

It happened in the past and continues on into the future because there is nothing in the sentence indicating it stops.

So A would be correct if it stated:

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump [until 1980].
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce   [#permalink] 10 Jul 2008, 07:05

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