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# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

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01 Sep 2004, 00:51
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2014, 01:48
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Analysis Done :-

1. E option is NG as allowed for is unidiomatic.
2.Options B C are NG as amount of phosphate = phosphate's anount and not phosphate amount.
Now I can not decide between A and D.

I chose A as my understanding of the OS is : Prior to agreement municipalities dumped hence past pefect tense is Ok.

Experts pl help

1.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2014, 21:32
purnima wrote:
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Analysis Done :-

1. E option is NG as allowed for is unidiomatic.
2.Options B C are NG as amount of phosphate = phosphate's anount and not phosphate amount.
Now I can not decide between A and D.

I chose A as my understanding of the OS is : Prior to agreement municipalities dumped hence past pefect tense is Ok.

Experts pl help

1.

Dear Purnima,

Meghna has addressed the tense issue with choice A beautifully. Please have a look at her post above. If you still have any doubt, then kindly post your question and analysis keeping in mind the analysis Meghna has provided in her post. We’ll take our discussion forward from there.

As regards your analysis of other choices, I feel that you are relying heavily on your understanding of idiom issues in these choices and less on the tense and meaning issues in them. Accordingly, I would like to request you to kindly post a thorough meaning analysis of the original sentence and identify the tense and meaning issues, along with any other issues that the choices may have.

Regards,
Neeti.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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15 May 2014, 06:23
An agreement that occurred in 1972 is correctly
described with the past tense verb reduced. Since
the dumping continued after the date of the
agreement, the past perfect verb had been allowed
should instead be the present are allowed (if the
agreement remained in eff ect when the sentence
was written) or the past were allowed (if the
agreement was no longer in eff ect when the
sentence was written). Since were allowed does not
appear in any of the options, we can assume that
the correct verb tense is are allowed. Th e phrase
amount of phosphates is clear and idiomatically
correct, whereas phosphate amount is not idiomatic.

A) Had been allowed should be are allowed.
B ) The phosphate amount should be the amount of
phosphates; the omission of some form of
allow is incorrect since the agreement
changed not the amount dumped, but the
amount permitted to be dumped.
C) Present tense reduces should be the past tense
reduced; the phosphate amount should be the
amount of phosphates; have been allowed
should be are allowed.
D) Correct. Th e past tense reduced is correctly
used in this sentence to describe a past
action, and the present tense are allowed is
used to describe the present situation.
E) Present tense reduces should be the past tense
reduced; allowed for dumping is an incorrect
idiom; allowed for dumping by municipalities
is awkward.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2014, 09:04
Correct: D
An agreement that occurred in 1972 is correctly described with the past tense verb reduced. Since the dumping continued after the date of the agreement, the past perfect verb had been allowed should instead be the present are allowed (if the agreement remained in effect when the sentence was written) or the past were allowed( If the agreement was no longer in effect when the sentence was written). Since were allowed does not appear in any of the options,we can assume that the correct verb tense is are allowed. The phrase amount of phosphates is clear and idiomatically correct, whereas phosphate amount is not idiomatic.
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Senior Manager
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2014, 21:14
amit_upasani wrote:
I picked D as it better follows the intent of the sentence...

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities are allowed to dump"....that the agreement refers to dumping that is ongoing is best expressed here.

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities had been allowed to dump" the agreement could not really have reduced the amount that had already been dumped, right?

Makes sense .. I opted for D and this explanation makes sense as to why D is right.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2014, 06:34
I will go with D

There was an agreement in 1972.
The agreement puts a limit on amount of phosphates.
That limit was put into effect from 1972 till present date.
Municipalities are still allowed to dump phosphates in Great Lakes but the amount is reduced.

I think D is clear in tense and meaning.

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2014, 04:35
Can any GMAT verbal experts explain why D is the right answer in OG ? I find A to be right like most of the people above me in this thread
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2014, 22:24
D: reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump

Use of had been wrong - in other options - we will not dump any more - so its not past perfect continuous
Use of reduced correct - not use of "reduces" .. started in past
Hope its clear ,
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2014, 04:43
D is correct one with modification of 'are' to 'were'.
In A 'Had been' construction is confirming that Municipalities were actually dumping however we don't have any clue whether municipality was really dumping or not.
D states correctly since it doesn't say whether municipality were dumping or not. So changing 'are' to 'were' will perfectly serve the purpose.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2014, 03:27
This is a very tricky sequence of tense question and we need to focus on meaning then only we can conclude correct tense.

Point to be noted:
Discharge or dumping was reduced not totally disavowed. It is still permitted, but in diminished proportions.

had is absolutely wrong, because discharge though diminished still continues.

A and B are out.

Lets move ahead and see how C, D and E comes out to be.

reduced vs reduces split

1972..agreement... we need a past verb form. reduced is correct, reduces is incorrect.

C and E goes away.

D is correct. "reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump" are is correct as municipalities are still allowed to dump/discharge, though proportion is diminished.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2014, 08:02
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The Correct ans. is 'D'

Eliminate B and C because incorrect 'the phosphate amount' is used here.It should be 'the amount of phosphates'.

Eliminate 'E' --- context talks about a 1972 event ,hence 'reduced' should be the verb.

between A and D

had been allowed(past perfect) vs are allowed (past)

As we the sentence talks about a 1972 agreement ,it will reduce the amount ,which is allowed to be dumped at that point of time not before that ,therefore past tense is required not past perfect.
If we use past perfect ,it would mean that the amount was allowed only before the agreement has been made.If the amount has already been reduced ,then what is the use of the agreement afterwards.

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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2015, 23:41
i think this is a poorly formed question. both A and D are grammatically correct and would make sense.

i disagree that A is wrong. the explanations given for this view are all unsatisfactory as well. it could easily be interpreted grammatically that the agreement in question reduced the amount of phosphates that the municipalities were allowed to dump after the agreement itself. it makes perfect sense. ie. before 1972, 100 units allowed. after 1972 agreement, 50 units allowed. this is what option A would imply. the municipalities had been allowed to dump 100 units before, and the agreement reduced this amount to 50.

D would make sense as well for the explanations provided above. all in all, a poor question. i hope questions like this do not come out in the exam.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2015, 00:28
Remained between A and D. Still can't understand why A is wrong.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2015, 23:11
What is the correct answer for the question , I opted for an " A" , D seems quite irrelevant .." Are " doesnt match with the past tense reduced
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2015, 00:48
dhyani wrote:
What is the correct answer for the question , I opted for an " A" , D seems quite irrelevant .." Are " doesnt match with the past tense reduced

The correct answer for this question is D.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2015, 03:08
Ergenekon wrote:
Remained between A and D. Still can't understand why A is wrong.

Hello Ergenekon, I provided a detailed explanation to this some time back here.

Do let me know if something is still not clear.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2015, 03:11
Thanks EducationAisle. I have read almost all explanations to this question through different sites, and in the end, I decided to remember it as it is. Because I think the answer to this question will always be ambiguous to non - native speakers:)
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2015, 03:49
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Ergenekon wrote:
I think the answer to this question will always be ambiguous to non - native speakers:)

Hi Ergenekon, I don't take that for an answer, because I am a non-native speaker too:).

Let's give it another shot, with a fresh example, that you can better associate with.

Prior to 2012, GMAT used to have two essays as part of AWA. In 2012 however, GMAC introduced the IR section, replacing one of the AWA essays. So:

i) Prior to 2012, GMAT had two essays as part of AWA
ii) Since 2012, GMAT has had one essay as part of AWA.

How would we articulate this in a sentence?

A 2012 change in the pattern of GMAT reduced the number of essays that students are asked to attempt as part of the GMAT exam.

Now, why can’t we articulate the sentence as:

A 2012 change in the pattern of GMAT reduced the number of essays that students had been asked to attempt as part of the GMAT exam.

For this, let’s understand the intent of the sentence. Students are asked to attempt what as part of the GMAT exam? Well, students are asked to attempt essays as part of the GMAT exam. So, that (in that students…) is clearly referring to essays (and not to number of essays).

Summarily, students attempted essays even prior to 2012; students attempt essays even now (and hence the construct: students are asked to attempt, because students are asked to attempt essays even now). The only thing that changed/reduced in 2012 was their number. Hence, the sentence:

GMAT reduced the number of essays that students are asked to attempt as part of the GMAT exam.

Let me know if it is now making some sense:).
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2015, 03:16
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

look at choice E.
"reduces" is CORRECT because 1972 agreement can do something at present. So, "allowed for dumping" is wrong
why is this phrase wrong?

pls help.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2016, 14:32
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

I think (D) is better than (A).

Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce   [#permalink] 06 Feb 2016, 14:32

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