It is currently 28 Jun 2017, 02:52

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 18 Jun 2004
Posts: 103
Location: san jose , CA

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2004, 00:51
5
KUDOS
74
This post was
BOOKMARKED
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Last edited by Skywalker18 on 28 Feb 2017, 22:01, edited 1 time in total.
Corrected the underlined portion
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2100
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Dec 2013, 11:00
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
bagdbmba wrote:
I've two possible explanations for this sentence so,please let me know whether any one of these is correct, if at all ?

1.Here, if we say that per the sentence and the meaning it's clear that 'till 1972 municipalities were allowed to dump a certain amount of phosphate into the Great Lakes but a 1972 agreement reduced this amount'. Now isn't it evident that the phrase "A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount" provides a time frame that clearly indicates that dumping was there before this agreement in 1972. So no need to use past perfect 'had been allowed to dump' explicitly.

This is not the reason that past perfect cannot be used here. We are not referring to the act of dumping itself, but to a reduction in the AMOUNT that can be dumped. So, it is illogical to say that a 1972 agreement can reduce the amount that was dumped before the agreement was made. The agreement can only reduce the amount that is dumped in the future. So, it makes no sense to use the past perfect tense here.

bagdbmba wrote:
2. 'allowed to dump' and 'reduced this amount' are NOT really related - dumping can occur even if there is no REDUCTION in 1972. So, two unrelated events in the past - no need to use past perfect.

Again, the way to eliminate past perfect tense here is not to say that the two events are unrelated, but to focus on the fact that the reduction is to be done after the agreement is made.

I hope this helps!

Regards,
Meghna
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Manager
Joined: 12 Jan 2013
Posts: 219
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Jan 2014, 08:51
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

the agreement already happened, so present tense is wrong.. C/E are gone.

"had been allowed", distorts intended meaning. It implies that the agreement in itself reduced allowed amounts of phosphates, AFTER the phosphates had been dumped. In other words, putting restrictions on something that had already happened. A is gone

B makes the same mistake but not on "allowed", but on the actual action of dumping. "reduced the amount that X had been dumping".. an agreement is not a time machine that can go back in time and reduce something that already happened.

D is not only the best because it doesn't distort meaning, it also implies that the restrictions put forth by the agreement still apply, to this day. This makes perfect sense.
Intern
Joined: 20 Mar 2013
Posts: 14
Schools: ISB - Class of 2016
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

16 Feb 2014, 08:09
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pl review my analysis

Meaning

Agreement to reduce the amt of phosphate that was allowed to be dumped

POE

1) A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United
States reduced the amount of phosphates
2) that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the
Great Lakes.

SV correct
Agreement...reduced

Modifier
into the Great Lakes...is correctly placed

Meaning Correct

Parallelism
B/w C and the US...correct

Pronoun-

Idiom
allowed to...correct

Other-

Verb

Here though even after the agreement municipalities will dump the waste (of reduced amt) the sequence is

Municipalities allowed to dump waste --->Agreement to reduce waste----> Municipalities allowed to dump less waste

POE A correct

As per the sequence it is correct to state that municipalities had been allowed, because agreement happened later

So why is D correct here?
Also, what is the difference in amt of phosphate and phosphate amount
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2100
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Feb 2014, 05:04
2
KUDOS
Expert's post
jrashish wrote:
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pl review my analysis

Meaning

Agreement to reduce the amt of phosphate that was allowed to be dumped

POE

1) A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United
States reduced the amount of phosphates
2) that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the
Great Lakes.

SV correct
Agreement...reduced

Modifier
into the Great Lakes...is correctly placed

Meaning Correct

Parallelism
B/w C and the US...correct

Pronoun-

Idiom
allowed to...correct

Other-

Verb

Here though even after the agreement municipalities will dump the waste (of reduced amt) the sequence is

Municipalities allowed to dump waste --->Agreement to reduce waste----> Municipalities allowed to dump less waste

POE A correct

As per the sequence it is correct to state that municipalities had been allowed, because agreement happened later

So why is D correct here?
Also, what is the difference in amt of phosphate and phosphate amount

Dear Ashish,

As I explained in my post above, according to the intended meaning of the sentence, the agreement can only reduce the amount of phosphates that can be dumped AFTER the agreement is made. "Had been dumped" refers to the amount that was dumped BEFORE the agreement was made. So, logically, it doesn't make sense to say that the agreement can reduce this amount. The correct answer must use either the simple past tense or the present tense.

There is no real difference in meaning between "amount of phosphates" and "phosphate amount", but idiomatically, we use "number of" and "amount of". So, "amount of phosphates" is better.

I hope this helps with your doubts.

Regards,
Meghna
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Intern
Joined: 24 Dec 2013
Posts: 29
Location: United States
Concentration: Strategy, Technology
GMAT Date: 05-15-2014
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Mar 2014, 17:50
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Spoiler:

The OA is D, but I fail to understand why A is incorrect. The bone of contention is "had been allowed" in A vs "are allowed" in D.

I searched on forums and people have mentioned that dumping is an ongoing process, hence "are allowed" in D is correct. Experts have mentioned that since what has already been dumped cannot be reduced, hence "reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump" in A is incorrect. But I think if the choice A was "reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had dumped", then it was wrong, since you cant go back in time and reduce what has been dumped, but this question is about what has been "allowed" to dump.

E.g. municipalities were allowed to dump 20 tons per day before 1972 and after the agreement they were allowed to dump 15 tons per day, so the agreement reduced what municipalities had been allowed to dump (he 20 tons limit).

Can experts explain why A is wrong?
Moderator
Joined: 01 Sep 2010
Posts: 3216
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Mar 2014, 23:21
Mereged similar topic

See the above explanation
_________________
Manager
Joined: 24 Oct 2013
Posts: 174
Schools: LBS '18
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V38
WE: Design (Transportation)
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Apr 2014, 20:47
amit_upasani wrote:
I picked D as it better follows the intent of the sentence...

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities are allowed to dump"....that the agreement refers to dumping that is ongoing is best expressed here.

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities had been allowed to dump" the agreement could not really have reduced the amount that had already been dumped, right?

But my friend there's a discrepancy here. What you are saying can be true for the sentence:

- agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities had dumped

Are you getting it? what you are saying is 'agreement could not really have reduced the amount that had already been dumped', well the truth is that the municipality isn't reducing that amount either. It's reducing the amount that is ALLOWED to be dumped.

the statement in the option says

- agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities had been allowed to dump

Something was allowed before the timeframe referred and then the AMOUNT ALLOWED was reduced.

Notice the AMOUNT is NOT reduced but the AMOUNT ALLOWED.
MBA Section Director
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 3835
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Energy and Utilities)
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 Apr 2014, 05:24
Senior Manager
Joined: 15 Aug 2013
Posts: 311
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Apr 2014, 22:17
souvik101990 wrote:

Hi Souvik, I saw the explanation and copied the answer here to keep the discussion focused -- hope that's OK.

"Now, since the agreement is in the past, I cannot use a present tense verb. So "reduces" does not work at all. Eliminate C and E.

If I use past perfect, what does it mean really? It means that the agreement reduced something that happened before the passage of the agreement. SO I cannot use the perfect past tense. Eliminate A and B.
D is the correct answer "

I understand WHAT you're trying to say about not being able to use past perfect but for some reason, I cannot seem to decipher the meaning of A & B. The way I read A & B is as follows - "The agreement b/w Can and US reduced the amount of phosphates(that will be dumped in the future) and it has been reduced(by an arbitrary %) compared to what they were allowed to dump". I know it's wrong because of all the other explanations but I can't see why? Are there other simple examples that could demonstrate why i'm not understanding this part?
MBA Section Director
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 3835
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Energy and Utilities)
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Apr 2014, 12:48
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
Quote:
I understand WHAT you're trying to say about not being able to use past perfect but for some reason, I cannot seem to decipher the meaning of A & B. The way I read A & B is as follows - "The agreement b/w Can and US reduced the amount of phosphates(that will be dumped in the future) and it has been reduced(by an arbitrary %) compared to what they were allowed to dump". I know it's wrong because of all the other explanations but I can't see why? Are there other simple examples that could demonstrate why i'm not understanding this part?

Okay
Let's look at this again

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

1. Agreement happened in 1972
2. People are dumbing a lot of waste before 1972
3. Agreement prohibits people from dumping more than a certain amount.

Now what A is trying to say is that the agreement reduces the waste that HAS ALREADY BEEN DUMPED. That's not possible is it?

Does that help?

(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping

Same
_________________
Intern
Joined: 20 Nov 2009
Posts: 21
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

22 Apr 2014, 01:48
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Analysis Done :-

1. E option is NG as allowed for is unidiomatic.
2.Options B C are NG as amount of phosphate = phosphate's anount and not phosphate amount.
Now I can not decide between A and D.

I chose A as my understanding of the OS is : Prior to agreement municipalities dumped hence past pefect tense is Ok.

Experts pl help

1.
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2100
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Apr 2014, 21:32
purnima wrote:
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Analysis Done :-

1. E option is NG as allowed for is unidiomatic.
2.Options B C are NG as amount of phosphate = phosphate's anount and not phosphate amount.
Now I can not decide between A and D.

I chose A as my understanding of the OS is : Prior to agreement municipalities dumped hence past pefect tense is Ok.

Experts pl help

1.

Dear Purnima,

Meghna has addressed the tense issue with choice A beautifully. Please have a look at her post above. If you still have any doubt, then kindly post your question and analysis keeping in mind the analysis Meghna has provided in her post. We’ll take our discussion forward from there.

As regards your analysis of other choices, I feel that you are relying heavily on your understanding of idiom issues in these choices and less on the tense and meaning issues in them. Accordingly, I would like to request you to kindly post a thorough meaning analysis of the original sentence and identify the tense and meaning issues, along with any other issues that the choices may have.

Regards,
Neeti.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Intern
Joined: 05 Dec 2013
Posts: 3
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 May 2014, 06:23
An agreement that occurred in 1972 is correctly
described with the past tense verb reduced. Since
the dumping continued after the date of the
agreement, the past perfect verb had been allowed
should instead be the present are allowed (if the
agreement remained in eff ect when the sentence
was written) or the past were allowed (if the
agreement was no longer in eff ect when the
sentence was written). Since were allowed does not
appear in any of the options, we can assume that
the correct verb tense is are allowed. Th e phrase
amount of phosphates is clear and idiomatically
correct, whereas phosphate amount is not idiomatic.

A) Had been allowed should be are allowed.
B ) The phosphate amount should be the amount of
phosphates; the omission of some form of
allow is incorrect since the agreement
changed not the amount dumped, but the
amount permitted to be dumped.
C) Present tense reduces should be the past tense
reduced; the phosphate amount should be the
amount of phosphates; have been allowed
should be are allowed.
D) Correct. Th e past tense reduced is correctly
used in this sentence to describe a past
action, and the present tense are allowed is
used to describe the present situation.
E) Present tense reduces should be the past tense
reduced; allowed for dumping is an incorrect
idiom; allowed for dumping by municipalities
is awkward.
Manager
Joined: 07 Mar 2012
Posts: 51
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Nonprofit
GMAT Date: 09-13-2013
GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Energy and Utilities)
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

11 Jun 2014, 09:04
Correct: D
An agreement that occurred in 1972 is correctly described with the past tense verb reduced. Since the dumping continued after the date of the agreement, the past perfect verb had been allowed should instead be the present are allowed (if the agreement remained in effect when the sentence was written) or the past were allowed( If the agreement was no longer in effect when the sentence was written). Since were allowed does not appear in any of the options,we can assume that the correct verb tense is are allowed. The phrase amount of phosphates is clear and idiomatically correct, whereas phosphate amount is not idiomatic.
_________________

Remember that potential unused turns into pain. So dedicate yourself to expressing your best.

Senior Manager
Joined: 28 Apr 2014
Posts: 282
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

11 Jun 2014, 21:14
amit_upasani wrote:
I picked D as it better follows the intent of the sentence...

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities are allowed to dump"....that the agreement refers to dumping that is ongoing is best expressed here.

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities had been allowed to dump" the agreement could not really have reduced the amount that had already been dumped, right?

Makes sense .. I opted for D and this explanation makes sense as to why D is right.
Manager
Joined: 23 May 2014
Posts: 105
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Jun 2014, 06:34
I will go with D

There was an agreement in 1972.
The agreement puts a limit on amount of phosphates.
That limit was put into effect from 1972 till present date.
Municipalities are still allowed to dump phosphates in Great Lakes but the amount is reduced.

I think D is clear in tense and meaning.

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.
Senior Manager
Joined: 28 Apr 2014
Posts: 282
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Jul 2014, 04:35
Can any GMAT verbal experts explain why D is the right answer in OG ? I find A to be right like most of the people above me in this thread
Affiliations: Oracle certified java programmer , adobe certified developer
Joined: 14 Jul 2013
Posts: 123
GMAT Date: 02-12-2015
GPA: 3.87
WE: Programming (Telecommunications)
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

10 Oct 2014, 22:24
D: reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump

Use of had been wrong - in other options - we will not dump any more - so its not past perfect continuous
Use of reduced correct - not use of "reduces" .. started in past
Hope its clear ,
_________________

IF IT IS TO BE , IT IS UP TO ME

Intern
Status: Engineering consultant
Joined: 13 Jul 2014
Posts: 18
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
GMAT 1: 650 Q49 V32
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

11 Oct 2014, 04:43
D is correct one with modification of 'are' to 'were'.
In A 'Had been' construction is confirming that Municipalities were actually dumping however we don't have any clue whether municipality was really dumping or not.
D states correctly since it doesn't say whether municipality were dumping or not. So changing 'are' to 'were' will perfectly serve the purpose.
Director
Status: Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 17 Apr 2013
Posts: 612
Location: India
GMAT 1: 710 Q50 V36
GMAT 2: 750 Q51 V41
GMAT 3: 790 Q51 V49
GPA: 3.3
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Nov 2014, 03:27
This is a very tricky sequence of tense question and we need to focus on meaning then only we can conclude correct tense.

Point to be noted:
Discharge or dumping was reduced not totally disavowed. It is still permitted, but in diminished proportions.

had is absolutely wrong, because discharge though diminished still continues.

A and B are out.

Lets move ahead and see how C, D and E comes out to be.

reduced vs reduces split

1972..agreement... we need a past verb form. reduced is correct, reduces is incorrect.

C and E goes away.

D is correct. "reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump" are is correct as municipalities are still allowed to dump/discharge, though proportion is diminished.
_________________

Like my post Send me a Kudos It is a Good manner.
My Debrief: http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-score-750-and-750-i-moved-from-710-to-189016.html

Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce   [#permalink] 08 Nov 2014, 03:27

Go to page   Previous    1  ...  11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22    Next  [ 428 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
The border between the United States and Canada 3 10 May 2017, 02:58
2 Arms talks from Geneva between China, the United States 2 20 Jan 2015, 11:07
7 In 1994 agreements existed between Canada and several 14 03 Jun 2017, 08:47
2 There is a widespread belief in the United States and ... 11 18 Feb 2015, 09:05
SC- Companies in the United State 9 11 Jun 2012, 03:35
Display posts from previous: Sort by