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# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

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01 Sep 2004, 00:51
5
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Last edited by Skywalker18 on 28 Feb 2017, 22:01, edited 1 time in total.
Corrected the underlined portion
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2005, 21:47
"Old Habits Die Hard"
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2005, 22:10
celiaXDN wrote:
I remember it is D too.

my reasoning is the same as hkm_gmat's

If you use had, it means the agreement had ended sometime in the past.

I would have gone for A as well. Far as I know, the past perfect is used when you have two 'past' events, use the past tense for the earlier of the two, and past perfect for the later of the two. I did not read before that the use of past perfect suggests an agreement will end in present today.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2005, 22:12
I know the answer is between A and D. On the exam day, I would have chosen A.

I thought A correctly uses a Past Perfect tense. By using a past perfect tense, doesn't it mean that the agreement which was done in the past happens till date.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2005, 08:45
I incorrectly chose A as well. The reason why D is correct is because the agreement still stands to this day. Let`s hammer this one in once and for all!

Consider this:

The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro outlined the complexity of the problems facing our planet: that poverty as well as excessive consumption by affluent populations place damaging stress on the environment.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2005, 08:59
such a persuasive example, Matt!!

Last edited by laxieqv on 19 Oct 2005, 10:43, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2005, 10:36
Yes after careful reading, D makes a whole lot sense.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2006, 15:46
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2006, 16:02
I will go with A. Perfect case of past perfect.

I think B is a trap answer. "municipalities had been dumping" changing the meaning. They were not dumping, they were allowed to dump.
_________________

SAID BUSINESS SCHOOL, OXFORD - MBA CLASS OF 2008

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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2006, 22:20
Good catch dahiya...
On first look B i was about to hit B.
But A it should be
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2006, 06:00
(D) is probably the more common trap answer here. "are" distorts the meaning.

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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2006, 15:34
The OA is A
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2006, 18:20
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United
States reduced the amount of phosphates that
municipalities had been allowed to dump
into the
Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that munici-
palities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipali-
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities
have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that munici-
palities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for
dumping by municipalities
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2006, 18:57
Its a 3-2 split. Since the agreement was done in the past, reduced is the correct choice. Between A, B and D, B is out since "the law" does not "allow" dumping. D is out since it uses "are allowed" for the agreement in past.

- Vipin

Last edited by vipin7um on 16 Feb 2006, 22:16, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2006, 19:16
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump

Are the municipalities no more allowed to dump the phosphates? no. therefore, are allowed is correct.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2006, 21:31
Yes, the past perfect is unecessary here.

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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2006, 21:44
I think it is "A".

IMO, "had" is needed here since it points to "amount that was allowed to dump before 1972".

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2006, 00:02
It has to be A.
Vivek has just stolen my words. Same logic from my side as well.

Hey Vivek, where is your Sweeeet Baby??

Brajesh
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2006, 00:17
vivek123 wrote:
I think it is "A".

IMO, "had" is needed here since it points to "amount that was allowed to dump before 1972".

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

how about if Municipalities are still allowed to dump the phosphats that are reduced with the effect of 1972 agreemement between US and canada.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2006, 00:55
Professor wrote:
vivek123 wrote:
I think it is "A".

IMO, "had" is needed here since it points to "amount that was allowed to dump before 1972".

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

how about if Municipalities are still allowed to dump the phosphats that are reduced with the effect of 1972 agreemement between US and canada.

What I want to say is this:
municipalities are allowed to dump phosphates but the amount that had been allowed to dump is reduced.

Brajesh,
This is my portrait now
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2006, 15:08
vivek123 wrote:
Professor wrote:
vivek123 wrote:
I think it is "A".

IMO, "had" is needed here since it points to "amount that was allowed to dump before 1972".

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

how about if Municipalities are still allowed to dump the phosphats that are reduced with the effect of 1972 agreemement between US and canada.

What I want to say is this:
municipalities are allowed to dump phosphates but the amount that had been allowed to dump is reduced.

we use "had been" to express an event had started in the past and continued for a period of time in the past and finished in the past but no more continues in the present. so it is not good to had been for "are allowed".
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce   [#permalink] 17 Feb 2006, 15:08

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