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# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

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Senior Manager
Joined: 15 Apr 2005
Posts: 413
Location: India, Chennai
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2005, 22:12
I know the answer is between A and D. On the exam day, I would have chosen A.

I thought A correctly uses a Past Perfect tense. By using a past perfect tense, doesn't it mean that the agreement which was done in the past happens till date.
Current Student
Joined: 29 Jan 2005
Posts: 5117
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2005, 08:45
I incorrectly chose A as well. The reason why D is correct is because the agreement still stands to this day. Let`s hammer this one in once and for all!

Consider this:

The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro outlined the complexity of the problems facing our planet: that poverty as well as excessive consumption by affluent populations place damaging stress on the environment.
SVP
Joined: 24 Sep 2005
Posts: 1839
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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Updated on: 19 Oct 2005, 10:43
such a persuasive example, Matt!!

Originally posted by laxieqv on 19 Oct 2005, 08:59.
Last edited by laxieqv on 19 Oct 2005, 10:43, edited 1 time in total.
SVP
Joined: 16 Oct 2003
Posts: 1751
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2005, 10:36
Yes after careful reading, D makes a whole lot sense.
Senior Manager
Joined: 16 Jul 2005
Posts: 387
Location: Las Vegas
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2006, 15:46
2. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
CEO
Joined: 20 Nov 2005
Posts: 2845
Schools: Completed at SAID BUSINESS SCHOOL, OXFORD - Class of 2008
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2006, 16:02
I will go with A. Perfect case of past perfect.

I think B is a trap answer. "municipalities had been dumping" changing the meaning. They were not dumping, they were allowed to dump.
_________________

SAID BUSINESS SCHOOL, OXFORD - MBA CLASS OF 2008

Director
Joined: 04 Oct 2005
Posts: 572
Location: Chicago
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2006, 22:20
Good catch dahiya...
On first look B i was about to hit B.
But A it should be
Current Student
Joined: 29 Jan 2005
Posts: 5117
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2006, 06:00
(D) is probably the more common trap answer here. "are" distorts the meaning.

Director
Joined: 17 Oct 2005
Posts: 899
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2006, 18:20
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United
States reduced the amount of phosphates that
municipalities had been allowed to dump
into the
Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that munici-
palities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipali-
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities
have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that munici-
palities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for
dumping by municipalities
Senior Manager
Joined: 08 Sep 2004
Posts: 253
Location: New York City, USA
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Feb 2006, 22:16
Its a 3-2 split. Since the agreement was done in the past, reduced is the correct choice. Between A, B and D, B is out since "the law" does not "allow" dumping. D is out since it uses "are allowed" for the agreement in past.

- Vipin

Originally posted by vipin7um on 16 Feb 2006, 18:57.
Last edited by vipin7um on 16 Feb 2006, 22:16, edited 1 time in total.
VP
Joined: 29 Dec 2005
Posts: 1327
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2006, 19:16
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump

Are the municipalities no more allowed to dump the phosphates? no. therefore, are allowed is correct.
Current Student
Joined: 29 Jan 2005
Posts: 5117
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2006, 21:31
Yes, the past perfect is unecessary here.

SVP
Joined: 14 Dec 2004
Posts: 1649
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2006, 21:44
I think it is "A".

IMO, "had" is needed here since it points to "amount that was allowed to dump before 1972".

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
Director
Joined: 17 Sep 2005
Posts: 882
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2006, 00:02
It has to be A.
Vivek has just stolen my words. Same logic from my side as well.

Hey Vivek, where is your Sweeeet Baby??

Brajesh
VP
Joined: 29 Dec 2005
Posts: 1327
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2006, 00:17
vivek123 wrote:
I think it is "A".

IMO, "had" is needed here since it points to "amount that was allowed to dump before 1972".

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

how about if Municipalities are still allowed to dump the phosphats that are reduced with the effect of 1972 agreemement between US and canada.
SVP
Joined: 14 Dec 2004
Posts: 1649
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2006, 00:55
Professor wrote:
vivek123 wrote:
I think it is "A".

IMO, "had" is needed here since it points to "amount that was allowed to dump before 1972".

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

how about if Municipalities are still allowed to dump the phosphats that are reduced with the effect of 1972 agreemement between US and canada.

What I want to say is this:
municipalities are allowed to dump phosphates but the amount that had been allowed to dump is reduced.

Brajesh,
This is my portrait now
VP
Joined: 29 Dec 2005
Posts: 1327
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2006, 15:08
vivek123 wrote:
Professor wrote:
vivek123 wrote:
I think it is "A".

IMO, "had" is needed here since it points to "amount that was allowed to dump before 1972".

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

how about if Municipalities are still allowed to dump the phosphats that are reduced with the effect of 1972 agreemement between US and canada.

What I want to say is this:
municipalities are allowed to dump phosphates but the amount that had been allowed to dump is reduced.

we use "had been" to express an event had started in the past and continued for a period of time in the past and finished in the past but no more continues in the present. so it is not good to had been for "are allowed".
Senior Manager
Joined: 09 Aug 2005
Posts: 276
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2006, 17:55
vivek123 wrote:
Professor wrote:
vivek123 wrote:
I think it is "A".

IMO, "had" is needed here since it points to "amount that was allowed to dump before 1972".

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

how about if Municipalities are still allowed to dump the phosphats that are reduced with the effect of 1972 agreemement between US and canada.

What I want to say is this:
municipalities are allowed to dump phosphates but the amount that had been allowed to dump is reduced.

Brajesh,
This is my portrait now

Vivek,

how can anyone reduce the amount of something that someone else dumped in the lakes in the past?

One can only reduce the amount people are allowed to dump henceforth.

reducing limit of phosphate one was allowed to dump - does nothing

reducing limit of phosphate one is allowed to dump henceforth makes sense

hence D
Director
Joined: 17 Oct 2005
Posts: 899
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2006, 18:24
the oa is A.

I chose D at first. But here are my two cents

1972 refers to the past. Therefore you can rid B,E.

Lets say hypothetically
the amount NOW allowed is 1 gallon
the agreement was changed to 5 gallons
before 1972, the amount is 10 gallons

Nothing wrong with A, the amount that had been alllowd is 10 gallons
The aggrement reduced that 10 gallons to 5 gallons
We are still talking about the past, I am reading the sentence now, the sentence refers to the past (1972) and that agreement in the past changed something that happend even earlier. Therefore past perfect is correct.

D is wrong because it changes the meaning of the sentence.
It can be interpreted as the 1972 agreement reduced the amount that municipalities are NOW allowed to dump( ie 1 gallon)

I don't no how to explain B. If someone can that would be great
VP
Joined: 29 Dec 2005
Posts: 1327
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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Updated on: 18 Feb 2006, 20:08
joemama142000 wrote:
the oa is A.

in the above posts it was discussed that this question is from OG, 11th ed (62) and the answer and clearification given were for D. I think we do not go beyond OG's answers and explanations at least for GMAT questions.

Originally posted by Professor on 18 Feb 2006, 18:39.
Last edited by Professor on 18 Feb 2006, 20:08, edited 3 times in total.
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce   [#permalink] 18 Feb 2006, 18:39

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