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# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2004, 00:51
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Skywalker18 on 28 Feb 2017, 22:01, edited 1 time in total.
Corrected the underlined portion
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you can ask an expert
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 13:25
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I picked D as it better follows the intent of the sentence...

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities are allowed to dump"....that the agreement refers to dumping that is ongoing is best expressed here.

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities had been allowed to dump" the agreement could not really have reduced the amount that had already been dumped, right?
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 00:51
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nelz007 wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates

that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

I wasn't fully convinced with the OA it was between A and D for me. When I pre-thought an answer choice I thought of the "were allowed" but that wasn't there in any of the answer choice.

Hi Nelson,
Let me address your doubt by first understanding the intended meaning of the sentence and analyzing the sentence structure. Then it will be easier to understand the differences between the options. (A and D in this case)
The intended meaning of the sentence is that till 1972, municipalities were allowed to dump a certain amount of phosphate into the Great Lakes. However, a 1972 agreement between Canada and the US reduced this amount. Now let us analyze the sentence structure.

• A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates
o that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

The only error in this sentence is the use of past perfect tense “had been allowed”.

Let us understand how. Per the sentence, the agreement reduced the amount that municipalities were allowed to dump. Now in this sentence, the verb tense - past perfect tense - had been allowed - is incorrect because it non-sensically implies that municipalities were allowed to dump a certain amount sometime in the past - (they are no longer allowed to dump now, since the action is already completed) and then the next event in the past happened - the agreement reduced this amount. It is not possible to reduce an amount for something that has already happened (had been allowed).

Therefore Choice A is incorrect for the reason discussed above.

Choice D: reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump.
This choice conveys the intended meaning. In general, the municipalities are allowed to dump a certain amount of phosphate. However, an agreement between Canada and the US reduced that amount in 1972.
Therefore this option is correct.

The thing to note here is that both "were" and "are" can be correct. So, if any one of these is given in the option statements, we can mark that option statement.

Now, the question is: what difference does it make to use "are" over "were"?

The school reduced the fine that Joe was supposed to pay.
The school reduced the fine that Joe is supposed to pay.

Can you identify the difference between these two sentences?

In the first sentence, Joe "was" supposed to pay the fine sometime in the past and we do not know whether he has paid the fine till now or not.
In the second sentence, Joe "is" supposed to pay the fine presently and we know that he has not yet paid the fine.

Similar is the case with the use of "were" and "are" in the original sentence.

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the US reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities were allowed to dump into the Great Lakes

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the US reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump into the Great Lakes

The first sentence means that we are referring to amount of phosphates that municipalities were allowed to dump in the past whereas the second sentence means that we are referring to the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump currently.

Do you get the difference?

So, both "are" and "were" are grammatically correct but convey different meanings.

Hope this helps!

Regards,
Krishna
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2004, 18:00
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(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
- Had been allowed means before this agreemet municpalities were dumping, after the agreement reduced the amount that are dumped.

(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
- Had been dumping is the wrong tense. It means it happened in the past and still happening at the point after the agreement (even though it may not be happening now)

(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
- reduces is the wrong tense

(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
- This statement did nothing to suggest that municapalilties were dumping anything and if so, the point of the agreement was more of a early kill (reduce the amount in case municipalities decided to start dumping waste)

(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
- reduces is the wrong tense

(A) is a better choice
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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28 May 2005, 10:25
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dipaksingh wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States (reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump) into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

I guess its risky to even wade in on this one, but I believe the answer is (D). I certainly see no reason it cannot be (D). If the agreement reached 30 years ago still stands, then it's clearly OK to say:

that agreement reduced the amount that municipalities are allowed to [now] dump.

There is truly nothing wrong with that verb tense or that sentence. Similarly, the Interstate speed limit in the US used to be an absurd 55 mph....
But legislation passed in the 1980s increased [past tense] the speed that drivers can drive [present tense].
That sentence is fine too.

If there's nothing wrong with (D), it's probably right.
Now look at (A).
reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump

I think this contains a subtle trap. (A) can only be correct if you have a time machine. Consider:

- Prior to 1972, municipalities had been allowed to dump X amount of phospahtes.
- That is a statement of historical fact. Nothing we can do now will change the reality that prevailed prior to 1972.
- In other words, an agreement reached in 1972 cannot change the historical fact that prior to that, municipalities had been allowed to dump X amount of phosphates.

- And so, you cannot go back in time and reduce the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump prior to the agreement; that amount is fixed for all time at X, as historial fact.

This is a slightly weird concept with regard to verb tense and time, and I'm not sure how to explain it clearly, but that's enough of a problem for me to rule out (A).
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2006, 01:07
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D it is.
Past perfect is used to suggest that something is over and done with before the main action of the past. It would be OK to say:

The 1972 agreement replaced the amount of phosphates that had been allowed with a new amount.

But if you are talking about changing an amount, then the amount existed before and continues to exist after the 1972 agreement. The present tense is used to refer to something that exists for all time.

Copernicus revealed that the Earth and the planets all revolve around the Sun.

"Revolve" is in the present tense because it is an action that was then and continues to take place. It would be wrong to say: "...revealed that the Earth and the planets revolved..." or "had revolved."

In the sentence under dicussion, there was and continues to be an amount of phosphates that municipalities can dump. The 1972 agreement reduced the amount, but the amount continues to exist.

I'll try one more example. Suppose I started a new diet last week. I formerly ate all the red meat I wanted. Under the new diet I allow myself to eat only 100 grams a day.

The diet I started last week reduced the amount of red meat I am allowed to eat to 100 grams a day.
It would be wrong to say:

The diet I started last week reduced the amount of red meat I had been allowed to eat to 100 grams a day.

Explanation by 800BOB.(testmagic)
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2007, 18:28
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Amar
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2007, 19:49
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Amardeep Sharma wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Amar

I think its A.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2007, 20:39
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Amardeep Sharma wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Amar

Will take a chance and go for 'D'
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2007, 20:50
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Amardeep Sharma wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Amar

Yes, the answer is A. After a long thought I could understand this.. Initially I went for D but then a little more thought and some reading of tenses again led me to A..
The agreement happened in the past hence 'reduced' should be there..
Now the agreement reduced something that was there earlier.. i.e the amount of phospates dumped in lake.. Hence this was allowed earlier only (Earlier event ) .. The agreement reduced this limit .. (later event)

Hence A..
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2007, 11:39
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D. The reduction holds today and will continue to hold in future. therefore, i'd go with the "are allowed to dump" over "had been/have been"
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2007, 18:39
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Posted: Wed Nov 28, 2007 5:28 pm Post subject: phosphate

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump CORRECT
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

The agreement happened in 1972 which "reduced" the amount of phosphates.....the dumping happened before the agreement, so it should be "had".
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2008, 16:33
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abhishakes2001 wrote:
D. The reduction holds today and will continue to hold in future. therefore, i'd go with the "are allowed to dump" over "had been/have been"

well how do you know that it holds today?
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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20 May 2008, 21:41
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Hi rpmodi,

gmatter contrains several errors. This particular question has been discussed several times and the answer is infact D.

Hi,

Do you have any links relating to this....?
I think it could even be context dependent. Consider this sentence as a part of a paragraph

Case 1:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes. Later, in 1982, another agreement between Canada and the United States further reduced this amount by another 35 percent.

Case 2:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are to dump into the Great Lakes. Today, the phosphate pollution level in the Great Lakes is very low.

NOTE: In case 2 - had been - would still work.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2009, 02:19
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noboru wrote:
Erukumk wrote:
+1 for D wats the OA

It is A, but i am with D too (At least until somebody clarify this...)

Probably, you must have referred it from 1000sc, only in 1000sc it is A, but the same problem is in OG 11 th edition. where OA is D, 1000sc has many questions with wrong OA.

Economist wrote:
Is the OA geniune:)
Because I cant understand how A can be the answer, there is absolutely no need of "had been allowed to dump"..as there is only one action in the past.

OA is D

IT IS A PROBLEM FORM OG 11 , PROBLEM NO.62 REFER IT.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2010, 06:54
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The gist of the sentence boils down to the restriction the agreement imposed on future action rather than on past action. Obliviously the agreement can't ask those who exceeded the dumping limits prior to 1972, to recover the dumped material from the lakes. So any mention of past tense or past perfect for describing the dumping is null and void. Choices A and B will be incorrect for this reason.

Since it is an agreement that was mooted in 1972, we are required to use past tense to denote the main verb. So C and E which use the present tense verb reduces can be eliminated.

D for using the past tense reduce to expose the timing of the event, and the present tense for some thing the is currently in vogue and that which is going to continue in the future, is the preferred choice.
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2013, 08:50
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1. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

The correct answer is A. Why not B or D ?
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2013, 00:43
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Hi Jazzyvirus,

So let's have a look at your sentence:

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes

In blue is the contentious section.

Here what I suggest you do first is think about it logically - before going to any particular grammar rules.

When you say 'reduce the amount they had been allowed' - what does that actually mean logically? It means they reduce the amount they had been allowed to dump before. This is nonsense - that in 1972 they allowed them to dump less phosphates in years gone by. What the 1972 agreement does is reduce the amount they are allowed to dump in the future. This is not logically conveyed by your sentence.

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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2014, 05:04
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Expert's post
jrashish wrote:
rahul wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Pl review my analysis

Meaning

Agreement to reduce the amt of phosphate that was allowed to be dumped

POE

1) A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United
States reduced the amount of phosphates
2) that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the
Great Lakes.

SV correct
Agreement...reduced

Modifier
into the Great Lakes...is correctly placed

Meaning Correct

Parallelism
B/w C and the US...correct

Pronoun-

Idiom
allowed to...correct

Other-

Verb

Here though even after the agreement municipalities will dump the waste (of reduced amt) the sequence is

Municipalities allowed to dump waste --->Agreement to reduce waste----> Municipalities allowed to dump less waste

POE A correct

As per the sequence it is correct to state that municipalities had been allowed, because agreement happened later

So why is D correct here?
Also, what is the difference in amt of phosphate and phosphate amount

Dear Ashish,

As I explained in my post above, according to the intended meaning of the sentence, the agreement can only reduce the amount of phosphates that can be dumped AFTER the agreement is made. "Had been dumped" refers to the amount that was dumped BEFORE the agreement was made. So, logically, it doesn't make sense to say that the agreement can reduce this amount. The correct answer must use either the simple past tense or the present tense.

There is no real difference in meaning between "amount of phosphates" and "phosphate amount", but idiomatically, we use "number of" and "amount of". So, "amount of phosphates" is better.

I hope this helps with your doubts.

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2017, 00:47
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There's no doubt about the OA: it is definitely D, and there is nothing wrong with this question (which really is an official GMAT question).

People get confused by this one because of the shifts in time. An agreement that took place in the past (described correctly in the past tense) had an effect on what we are now allowed to do (described correctly in the present tense). Similarly, I could say that a movie made in 1950 "changed the way that we see romantic love" or that a change made to the tax code in 1985 "limits the amount of losses one is able to deduct."

A is absolutely wrong. There's no ambiguity about that either. It starts in past tense and shifts to past perfect. This implies that the law worked backwards in time , changing the amount that people had been allowed to dump before the law was passed! Can we all agree that that makes no sense? Remember that the past perfect ("had been") is only used to describe events that precede some other past event in the sentence (or--outside the GMAT--elsewhere in the text). Answer choice A has only one past event, so the absurd interpretation I've provided is actually the only possible meaning! That choice has to go.
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