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A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority

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A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

(A) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
(B) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
(C) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
(D) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
(E) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2013, 23:19
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Hi there,
In a parallel list, comma is used before the parallel marker or the connector that joins all the entities in the list when there are more than two entities in a list. For example:
• Sri love apples and mangoes.
• Sri loves apples, mangoes, and grapes.

Since there are only two entities in the first sentence, we don't need comma before "and". But since there are three entities in the list in the second sentence, we need comma before "and".

In the given question, there are two lists. The second list resides in the first list. However, both the lists have only two entities.
• Entities in the main list - "are relatively small and old" (are) located in central cities.
• Entities in the sub-list - small and old.

This means that we don't need comma before any of the "and" because they join only two entities in the list. You can study other official sentences for this usage of comma.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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hsbinfy wrote:
hi,
i had a silly doubt.

the second sentence i guess can stand on its own .So dont we use semi colon here.it has a subject and a verb.


Hi,

you are perfectly fine in thinking so....they are two ICs.
but options with semicolon are not gramatically correct.
moreover 2 ICs can be connected by a COLON(:)..provided that the later clause must explains the preceeding clause.

below is an excerpt of MANHATTAN SC guide:

==>The colon (:) provides further explanation for what comes before it. For example, you can
use a colon to equate a list with its components. You should be able to insert the word
namely or the phrase that is after the colon.
What comes before the colon must be able to stand alone as a sentence. What comes after
the colon does not have to be able to stand alone.

You can put a main clause after a colon as well. The key is that this clause must explain
what precedes the colon-
perhaps the entire preceding clause.

example: On January 1, 2000, the national mood was completely different from
what it would become just a few years later: at the turn of the century,
given a seemingly unstoppable stock market and a seemingly peaceful
world, the country was content.


The words after the colon, at the turn of the century. " was content, can stand alone as a sentence.
They serve to explain the entire clause that comes before the colon (a clause that
asserts an upcoming change in the national mood, as of the first of the year 2000).


Do not confuse the semicolon (;) with the colon (:). The semicolon connects two related
independent clauses, but the second does not necessarily explain the first. In contrast, the
colon always connects a sentence with a further explanation.


hope it helps
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A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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saikarthikreddy wrote:
A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

(A) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
(B) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
(C) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
(D) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
(E) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.

pjaseem wrote:
I dont get why B is wrong ???? B is similar to D except for the length .

dheeraj24 wrote:
Hi Mike ,
The OA for this question is D. Need you help in Understanding choice B. If we add "and" between small and old [removing comma in between them ], the sentence looks like this.
b)difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and that are located in central cities.
can i expect parallelism in above case ?
and also could you please explain me is "that are" implied in Option D after "and".
and also could you please explain me the difference between choice B and D .
Thanks in advance.
Help is appreciated

Dear pjaseem: I'm happy to help. :-)
Dear dheeraj24: I'm happy to respond to your private message. :-)

First, I will say: usually Veritas practice SC questions are very good, but I am not really fond of this one. This one seems far too detail-oriented, picayune, in a way that the GMAT SC is not. For example, choices (A) - (C) have semicolons, and choices (D) - (E) have full colons: among other things, the sentence seems to be testing punctuation directly. This is something the real GMAT never does.

The differences between the five answer choices are minute, compared to the size of the underlined section. Also, not very GMAT-like.

The problem with (B) is: the Parallelism is an absolute disaster. These options would be correct:
that are relatively small and old and located in central cities (three modifiers in parallel: P and Q and R)
that are relatively small, old, and located in central cities (three modifiers in parallel: P, Q, and R)
that are relatively small and old, and that are located in central cities (two parallel "that" clauses)
Now, look at (B):
that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities = a disaster
What are we trying to put in in parallel? If we want to put the two "that" clauses in parallel, then the adjectives in the first clause need a conjunction between them. It would be correct simply to have a comma between "small" and "old" if we were constructing the P, Q, and R parallel structure above, but individual adjectives cannot be in parallel to a "that" clause!! There is absolutely no sensible way to interpret this structure as a legitimate form of parallelism. It is a complete failure of parallelism, arguably the "most wrong" of the five answer choices.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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ronr34 wrote:
blueseas wrote:
Do not confuse the semicolon (;) with the colon (:). The semicolon connects two related
independent clauses, but the second does not necessarily explain the first. In contrast, the
colon always connects a sentence with a further explanation.


hope it helps

Hi,
What I understand from this part is that a colon can always be replaced by a semicolon?
I don't see where the difference really lays.

Dear ronr34,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

1) The GMAT SC absolutely does not test punctuation. It does not write questions in which the split between two answers hinges on a punctuation difference.

2) With all due respect, your question contains a grammar error --- a usage error:
I don't see where the difference really lays.
This should be
I don't see where the difference really lies.
This is something the GMAT definitely tests. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-sente ... ie-vs-lay/

Now, it's beyond the what the GMAT will test, but I am happy to answer your question. A colon and a semicolon are NOT interchangeable. They have very different uses.

Roughly, the semicolon is a "soft break," as opposed the "hard break" of a, say, a period. The colon is a connector --- the logic of the sentence "flows through" a colon, but comes to a brief stop at a semicolon.

I like opera; Kevin doesn't. --- two independent clauses, with separate meanings; the semicolon, in providing a "soft break," actually enhances the contrast.

Kevin doesn't like opera: he says he finds it boring. --- now, the second clause explains the first; there is more logical connection, and the logic 'flows through" and interconnects the clauses.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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A 2009 study from the California State Housing [#permalink]

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Good question!

A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

(A) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
Wrong.
- Must have "and" before "located". If there is NO "and" before "located" --> "located" becomes verb-ed modifier that modifies the preceding noun --> That's not the case here because "located" does not modify any preceding noun.

(B) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
Wrong.
- Must have "and" between "small" and "old". Note: small, old, and "that are...." are not parallel. Only "small" and "old" are in the same category.
- "that are" is not necessary. We don't need to repeat the auxiliary "are".

(C) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
Wrong.
- "which" is wrong. If the clause is non-necessary, we can use "which" --> it means we can delete the relative clause without any changes in meaning. But we CAN'T do so here.

(D) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively (small and old) and (located in central cities).
Correct.
- Parallel structure: (small and old) and (located in central cities)

(E) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
Wrong.
- Comma is wrong here. If there are two items in the list --> we have to write "A and B". There is NO comma between A and B.

Hope it helps.
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2014, 06:00
Hi pqhai,
Thanks for explaining the options in detail. :)
I have a quick question here
Isn't colon(:) & semi-colon(;) also plays an imp role in making the 2/3 split ?
IMO here colon is preferred, as the second clause is basically a continuation of first or in a way dependent on the first.
Regards.
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2014, 10:34
JarvisR wrote:
Hi pqhai,
Thanks for explaining the options in detail. :)
I have a quick question here
Isn't colon(:) & semi-colon(;) also plays an imp role in making the 2/3 split ?
IMO here colon is preferred, as the second clause is basically a continuation of first or in a way dependent on the first.
Regards.

You're correct buddy.

Semicolon uses between two sentences. The second sentence provides more information for the first. However, two sentences MUST be two complete sentences. It means they are able to stand alone. Clearly, that's not the case here (part after ";" is not a complete sentence in terms of meaning, it CAN'T stand alone). Thus, ":" is correct.
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 17 Mar 2015, 06:58
This solution is from Veritas, but I cannot feel satisfied with its explanation. The use of commas should be discussed more carefully.

Solution: D

Explanation: The most obvious decision point in this problem is the choice of between a semi-colon and a colon. Interestingly, you could have either here: A semi-colon is used to link together related independent clauses and a colon is used to deliver more information about the clause that precedes it. This meets both conditions, but the colon use is more unusual for most students. (A), (B), (C), all suffer from errors in the series at the end of the sentence. In (A), “that are relatively small and old, located in central cities” is wrong because the “located in central cities” is a dangling modifier that cannot be properly linked to anything. In (B), you cannot have the structure: that are x, y, and that are z. In (C) the incorrect “which” clause would mean that all townhouses and “attached” homes are small and old and the “and located in central cities” is not linked to anything logical in the sentence. (D) is correct: the sentence after the colon is complete so it is capitalized and adds information to what precedes it. It is clear in (D) that the homes have two qualities: they are “relatively small and old” and “located in central cities.” In (E), the “and located in central cities” is improperly separated from a series that begins with “that”. Answer is (D).
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A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2015, 03:48
saikarthikreddy wrote:
A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

(A) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
(B) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
(C) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
(D) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
(E) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.


The problem in this sentence is with the modifier 'located in central cities'. The way it is placed at the end does not properly indicate that it modifies and is not parallel to 'small and old' which are also characteristics of the homes.
Hence (A) is wrong.

Choice (B) has a parallelism issue. "that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities." ... in this list, either there should be and 'and' before 'old' or there the list should be that are relatively small, that are relatively old, and that are located in central cities."

Choice (C) has parallelism issue. in the list 'which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities' comma after old is not required as there only two elements in the first level list. Also 'that' is preferred to which

Choice (D) correct

Choice (E) repeats the ||ism errors of choice (B) and [C]
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#Top150 SC: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2015, 17:11
Great question to learn about punctuation.

A. difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
As we have the " ; ", all the sentence after it NEEDS to be independent. However we need the information from the first sentence to understand it. Moreover, we don't have any transition word too. Therefore, this option lacks clarity.

B. difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
The same problem that we have in option A.

C. difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
The same problem that we have in option A.

D. difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
Correct. This is the correct one, the second sentence explain the first one, and the word "Difficult" is close to the " : ".

E. difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
the last comma creates a run-on sentence. Making the sentence a wrong choice.
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 18 Dec 2015, 10:47
saikarthikreddy wrote:
A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

(A) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
(B) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
(C) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
(D) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
(E) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.




I think Correct answer should be in the form
difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and that are located in central cities.

When we connect two clause with "And" , and clause itself contains subgroups, then to maintain parallelism , we should repeat word("That" in this case) and separate clauses by comma(recommended)

So If D is correct , then there is no sense of E to be incorrect
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2016, 02:55
saikarthikreddy wrote:
A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

(A) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
(B) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
(C) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
(D) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
(E) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.


mikemcgarry

It is mentioned in the OE that
Quote:
A semi-colon is used to link together related independent clauses and
a colon is used to deliver more information about the clause that precedes it.
This meets both conditions, but the colon use is more unusual for most students.


But I feel the second sentence is not independent and we cannot go for semi-colon.
It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities..

What does pronoun it refer to? Study or Authority or conversion or difficulty in conversion?
Which/that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities phrase is referring to some townhouses or other “attached” homes or both?
Please explain?
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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Nevernevergiveup wrote:
mikemcgarry

It is mentioned in the OE that
A semi-colon is used to link together related independent clauses and a colon is used to deliver more information about the clause that precedes it. This meets both conditions, but the colon use is more unusual for most students.

But I feel the second sentence is not independent and we cannot go for semi-colon.
It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities..

What does pronoun it refer to? Study or Authority or conversion or difficulty in conversion?
Which/that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities phrase is referring to some townhouses or other “attached” homes or both?
Please explain?

Dear Nevernevergiveup,

I'm happy to respond! :-) First of all, as I mentioned above, Veritas questions are often good, but I am not a fan of this one.

Colon and semicolon use is indeed quite subtle, and not really something the GMAT tests directly. It's true that, with a semicolon, we need an independent clause on each side. A colon can have an independent clause on each side, but it doesn't have to. When there's a colon separation between clauses, often the second clause is an explanation of the first clause---it provides a deeper "why" reason for the first statement. For example:
Nobody likes him: he is loud and obnoxious.
The second statement provides a reason and gives us insight as to why the first statement is true.

Here's the OE version of the sentence, (D):
A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.

The antecedent of "it" is "conversion," the subject of the "that" clause. This is a relatively natural antecedent-pronoun relationship, because in some sense "conversion" is the topic of the entire sentence.

The part of the sentence after the colon is a complete independent clause:
subject = "it"
verb = "has been"
Whether the noun modifier is a "that" clause or a "which" clause doesn't affect whether this entire part after the colon is independent. The fact that the antecedent of the pronoun is located somewhere else doesn't prevent this from qualifying as a full independent clause.

Notice that the statement after the colon gives an explanation: the first part says that the conversion is "difficult" and the second part gives some details about why it is difficult.

The "that" clause refers to "homes," the noun is touches. This follows the Modifier Touch Rule. This is a vital noun modifier, so we use "that" and don't separate it from the noun by a comma.

Overall, the OE is a perfectly correct sentence. I have no argument with that. My criticism is that the distractors are way too close and differ by only minute details. This is not at all in the style of the GMAT SC.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2016, 11:25
subhamgarg91 wrote:
fpugas wrote:
"...difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities."

Confused on one aspect of the how the original sentence is worded:

...its has been more common for A and B, located in central cities.


How do we know that "located in central cities" doesn't apply to both A and B?




Hi,

Can someone please explain the above quoted doubt?
Thanks.


Of course the modifier "located in central cities" applies to both A and B. However note the structure in A:

it is common for A and B {modifier 1: relative clause modifier "that are..."}, {modifier 2: past participle phrase modifier "located..."}.

It is often awkward to have two modifiers one after the other in series referring to something before or after them.

It is better to join those two aspects into one modifier as done in option D.

it is common for A and B {relative clause modifier "that are ...and located..."}.
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2016, 11:36
subhamgarg91 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
subhamgarg91 wrote:
"...difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities."

Confused on one aspect of the how the original sentence is worded:

...its has been more common for A and B, located in central cities.


How do we know that "located in central cities" doesn't apply to both A and B?



Hi,

Can someone please explain the above quoted doubt?
Thanks.


Of course the modifier "located in central cities" applies to both A and B. However note the structure in A:

it is common for A and B {modifier 1: relative clause modifier "that are..."}, {modifier 2: past participle phrase modifier "located..."}.

It is often awkward to have two modifiers one after the other in series referring to something before or after them.

It is better to join those two aspects into one modifier as done in option D.

it is common for A and B {relative clause modifier "that are ...and located..."}.


Hi sayantanc2k,

In my understanding, " modifier 1 : that are.." applies to B only while "modifier 2: located " applies to both A and B.
So how can we join both the modifiers?


There could be two possibilities:

Both A (townhouses) and B ("attached" homes) have the following characteristics:
1. relatively small and old
2. located in located in central cities.

OR

A (townhouses) has no modifier (i.e. no characteristics have been stated about townhouses ) and ONLY B ("attached" homes) has those 2 characteristics.

However, even if we suppose that A has only the 2nd characteristic and B has both, the original sentence would be wrong, since in that case B would be followed by 2 modifiers in series, a structure generally considered awkward in GMAT.
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2016, 12:00
suramya26 wrote:
Hi Mike,
Great explaination,
I just have a single doubt though I suppose it's silly..

In the D option yes I do agree there is parallelism error...But in the E option shouldn't we use a comma( ,) before "and" .
Also there are certain cases in which redundancy has to be avoided. Can you please shed some light on that???
I presume that here if used in E option may be redundant....

Dear suramya26,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

As a general rule, if a question is of low quality, it doesn't make sense to continue to dig into it. You are usually much better served by focusing on high quality questions.

I will say that when three things are listed in parallel, the most standard options are "A and B and C" or "A, B, and C." One of those structures would be used if A, B, and C are all of equivalent logical stature, for example, if the were three items of the same general category. If we had three colors, or three cities, or three animals, then one of these structures would be appropriate.

Nevertheless, those two are not appropriate in a "one size fits all" way. If A and B are of one logical category, and C is of a completely different logical category, it would be appropriate to set off C from A & B. We might use "A and B, and C" for example.

In (E), we have: "... that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities."

We could make the argument that "small and old" describe the physical appearance of the houses, whereas "located in central cities" describes something very different, location as opposed to appearance. If we wanted to emphasize this logical distinction, we could use this structure.

My friend, remember that logic always trumps grammar. Students naively think of the GMAT SC as a test of grammar. It's not. Logic and meaning are far more important, and the grammar simply serves the logic and meaning.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2016, 05:27
A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority concluded that conversion from ownership to rental properties has often been difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.

(A) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, located in central cities.
It's not clear as to what is the modifier "located in central cities" modifying or if it's part of the list of houses and homes.
(B) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small, old, and that are located in central cities.
"that are" is repeated in the list and is incorrect.
(C) difficult; it has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes, which are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
Comma + Conjunction needs to be followed by a Clause( Subject + Verb), but it's followed by a Prepositional Phrase.
(D) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old and located in central cities.
Correct. "small and old" is one list and "small and old(one element) and located in central cities" is one list.
(E) difficult: It has been more common for some townhouses and other “attached” homes that are relatively small and old, and located in central cities.
Comma + Conjunction needs to be followed by a Clause( Subject + Verb), but it's followed by a Prepositional Phrase.
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2017, 11:50
pjaseem, I believe B is incorrect because the "that are" before "located" makes it not parallel in the list. It should be listed as "small, old, and located..." for proper parallelism.

Would anyone be able to explain whether ", located in central cities" in option A is a dangling modifier? I recognize that it doesn't touch the nouns "townhouses and other attached homes," but it does touch the restrictive modifier connected to the nouns. Is it required to touch the noun itself?

Thanks in advance
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2017, 17:48
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions.
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Re: A 2009 study from the California State Housing Authority   [#permalink] 04 Apr 2017, 17:48

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