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# A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over

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A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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22 May 2007, 14:30
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A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over the age of 40 than when she is younger. Regardless of the mother's age, a person whose birth was difficult is more likely to be ambidextrous than is a person whose birth was not difficult. Since other causes of ambidexterity are not related to the mother's age, there must be more ambidextrous people who were born to women over 40 than there are ambidextrous people who were born to younger women.

The argument is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?

(A) It assumes what it sets out to establish

(B) It overlooks the possibility that fewer children are born to women over 40 than to women under 40

(C) It fails to specify what percentage of people in the population as a whole are ambidextrous

(D) It does not state how old a child must be before its handedness can be determined

(E) It neglects to explain how difficulties during birth can result in a child's ambidexterity
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Vyshak on 11 Dec 2016, 01:16, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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22 May 2007, 14:43
A or B.
but i think we can assume all other factors are same irrespective of the age.
my pick is B

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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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22 May 2007, 20:26
yup, the OA is B...but I don't really understand..i was thinking that it was A

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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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23 May 2007, 02:26
OA is interesting... I initially thought it was A too....

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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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23 May 2007, 12:46
apache, could you explain why you choose B please?

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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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23 May 2007, 23:32
Straight B.
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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2016, 23:26
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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2016, 23:58
A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over the age of 40 than when she is younger. Regardless of the mother’s age, a person whose birth was difficult is more likely to be ambidextrous than is a person whose birth was not difficult. Since other causes of ambidexterity are not related to the mother’s age, there must be more ambidextrous people who were born to women over 40 than there are ambidextrous people who were born to younger women.
The argument is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?
(A) It assumes what it sets out to establish.
(B) It overlooks the possibility that fewer children are born to women over 40 than to women under 40.
(C) It fails to specify what percentage of people in the population as a whole are ambidextrous.
(D) It does not state how old a child must be before its handedness can be determined.
(E) It neglects to explain how difficulties during birth can result in a child’s ambidexterity.
can someone explain the answer even the stimuli pls
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A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2016, 01:01
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YangYichen wrote:
A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over the age of 40 than when she is younger. Regardless of the mother’s age, a person whose birth was difficult is more likely to be ambidextrous than is a person whose birth was not difficult. Since other causes of ambidexterity are not related to the mother’s age, there must be more ambidextrous people who were born to women over 40 than there are ambidextrous people who were born to younger women.
The argument is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?
(A) It assumes what it sets out to establish.
(B) It overlooks the possibility that fewer children are born to women over 40 than to women under 40.
(C) It fails to specify what percentage of people in the population as a whole are ambidextrous.
(D) It does not state how old a child must be before its handedness can be determined.
(E) It neglects to explain how difficulties during birth can result in a child’s ambidexterity.
can someone explain the answer even the stimuli pls

Hi
The para means..
There are ambidextrous people, doesn't matter what it means. Now two statements are given
1) likelihood of a person being ambidextrous is more when the person's birth is difficult.
2) a lady above 40 is likely to have more difficulty while giving birth than ladies below 40.
Conclusion is that more ambidextrous are given birth by a lady above 40 than by lady below 40.

Even without getting into answers, we can see some problem in reasoning.
The problem is that the conclusion has converted ratio to number.
MEANS:- if both group of ladies give birth to say 100 persons. Then as per two statements we can say that maybe 20 ambidextrous are born to ladies above 40 and 10 are born to below 40.
But if there are only 10 births to ladies above 40 and 100 births to ladies below 40 In the same ratio, 4 aambidextrousare likely to be born to ladies above 40 while the number remains 10 for below 40.

This is the flaw in the reasoning above. And B points it out
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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2016, 01:12
chetan2u wrote:
YangYichen wrote:
A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over the age of 40 than when she is younger. Regardless of the mother’s age, a person whose birth was difficult is more likely to be ambidextrous than is a person whose birth was not difficult. Since other causes of ambidexterity are not related to the mother’s age, there must be more ambidextrous people who were born to women over 40 than there are ambidextrous people who were born to younger women.
The argument is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?
(A) It assumes what it sets out to establish.
(B) It overlooks the possibility that fewer children are born to women over 40 than to women under 40.
(C) It fails to specify what percentage of people in the population as a whole are ambidextrous.
(D) It does not state how old a child must be before its handedness can be determined.
(E) It neglects to explain how difficulties during birth can result in a child’s ambidexterity.
can someone explain the answer even the stimuli pls

Hi
The para means..
There are ambidextrous people, doesn't matter what it means. Now two statements are given
1) likelihood of a person being ambidextrous is more when the person's birth is difficult.
2) a lady above 40 is likely to have more difficulty while giving birth than ladies below 40.
Conclusion is that more ambidextrous are given birth by a lady above 40 than by lady below 40.

Even without getting into answers, we can see some problem in reasoning.
The problem is that the conclusion has converted ratio to number.
MEANS:- if both group of ladies give birth to say 100 persons. Then as per two statements we can say that maybe 20 ambidextrous are born to ladies above 40 and 10 are born to below 40.
But if there are only 10 births to ladies above 40 and 100 births to ladies below 40 In the same ratio, 4 aambidextrousare likely to be born to ladies above 40 while the number remains 10 for below 40.

This is the flaw in the reasoning above.

u r really so great at those difficult CR questions! thank you~i totally get what u say now!
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A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2016, 12:44
facts

- over 40- tough birth

tougher birth -> ambidextrous

since- other causes of ambiD are not related to mother age

assumption-
there are more number of women over 40 who get pregnant than are women less than 40
or more number of birth for over 40 than for less than 40

so we need to weaken this assumption

conclusion- more amb people to women who are over 40 than under 40

(let's say total 1000 ambidextrous born in a year- 700 ambidextrous born to over 40 age women, 300 born to less than 40 age women, so check the assumption at above

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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2017, 20:28
chetan2u wrote:
YangYichen wrote:
A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over the age of 40 than when she is younger. Regardless of the mother’s age, a person whose birth was difficult is more likely to be ambidextrous than is a person whose birth was not difficult. Since other causes of ambidexterity are not related to the mother’s age, there must be more ambidextrous people who were born to women over 40 than there are ambidextrous people who were born to younger women.
The argument is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms?
(A) It assumes what it sets out to establish.
(B) It overlooks the possibility that fewer children are born to women over 40 than to women under 40.
(C) It fails to specify what percentage of people in the population as a whole are ambidextrous.
(D) It does not state how old a child must be before its handedness can be determined.
(E) It neglects to explain how difficulties during birth can result in a child’s ambidexterity.
can someone explain the answer even the stimuli pls

Hi
The para means..
There are ambidextrous people, doesn't matter what it means. Now two statements are given
1) likelihood of a person being ambidextrous is more when the person's birth is difficult.
2) a lady above 40 is likely to have more difficulty while giving birth than ladies below 40.
Conclusion is that more ambidextrous are given birth by a lady above 40 than by lady below 40.

Even without getting into answers, we can see some problem in reasoning.
The problem is that the conclusion has converted ratio to number.
MEANS:- if both group of ladies give birth to say 100 persons. Then as per two statements we can say that maybe 20 ambidextrous are born to ladies above 40 and 10 are born to below 40.
But if there are only 10 births to ladies above 40 and 100 births to ladies below 40 In the same ratio, 4 aambidextrousare likely to be born to ladies above 40 while the number remains 10 for below 40.

This is the flaw in the reasoning above. And B points it out

In the case that you have taken it might be true but if the difference are meagre then it becomes a problem, right.
For ex: If there are
i) 100 births for ladies below 40 and
ii) 90 births for ladies above 40.

if there is a 50% chance for kids born to above 40 mothers to be ambidextrous and
10% chance for kids born to below 40 mothers to be ambidextrous. Then the current reasoning will fail right.
So A should be the probable choice. Don't you think?

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Re: A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over   [#permalink] 26 Jan 2017, 20:28
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# A birth is more like to be difficult when the mother is over

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