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A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums tha

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A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums that seat 20,000 or fewer people, the team averaged 1 home run per game; in stadiums that seat between 20,000 and 40,000 people, the team averaged 2 home runs per game; and, in stadiums that seat 40,000 or more people, the team averaged 3 home runs per game. Obviously, the excitement of playing in front of large crowds motivated the team to hit more home runs.

Assuming that all stadiums during the season were filled to capacity, which of the following, if true, most undermines the argument above?

(A) The team’s leading home run hitter hit more home runs in mid-sized stadiums than in large stadiums.
(B) The fans in the larger stadiums often cheered against the team.
(C) The team averaged only 2 home runs per game when playing in the league’s largest stadium.
(D) In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer to home base.
(E) The team’s announcer cited crowd noise as a major motivator for the team.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums tha [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2011, 18:32
D is the winner here.

According to the argument,
Large crowd = caused more home runs.

D attacks this conclusion by putting forward an alternate cause (smaller outfield).

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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums tha [#permalink]

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“home run” -- a ball hit across the field of play and over the opposing fence, called the outfield wall --

The field of play is closer, so the players are easier to hit home run.

Choice D is correct one.
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A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums that seat 20,000 or fewer people, the team averaged 1 home run per game; in stadiums that seat between 20,000 and 40,000 people, the team averaged 2 home runs per game; and, in stadiums that seat 40,000 or more people, the team averaged 3 home runs per game. Obviously, the excitement of playing in front of large crowds motivated the team to hit more home runs.

Assuming that all stadiums during the season were filled to capacity, which of the following, if true, most undermines the argument above?

(A) The team’s leading home run hitter hit more home runs in mid-sized stadiums than in large stadiums.
(B) The fans in the larger stadiums often cheered against the team.
(C) The team averaged only 2 home runs per game when playing in the league’s largest stadium.
(D) In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer to home base.
(E) The team’s announcer cited crowd noise as a major motivator for the team.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why can E not be the ansvver it implies there is an alternate casue for the conclusion
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2012, 20:44
venmic wrote:
A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums that seat 20,000 or fewer people, the team averaged 1 “home run” -- a ball hit across the field of play and over the opposing fence, called the outfield wall -- per game. In stadiums that seat between 20,000 and 40,000 people, the team averaged 2 home runs per game. Finally, in stadiums that seat 40,000 or more people, the team averaged 3 home runs per game. Obviously, the excitement of playing in front of large crowds motivated the team to hit more home runs.

Assuming that all stadiums during the season were filled to capacity, which of the following, if true, most undermines the argument above?

A) The team's leading home run hitter hit more home runs in mid-sized stadiums than in large stadiums.
B)The fans in the larger stadiums often cheered against the team.
C) The team averaged only 2 home runs per game when playing in the league’s largest stadium.
D) In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer to where the batter stands.
E) The team’s announcer cited crowd noise as a major motivator for the team.

Vvhy can E not be the ansvver it implies there is an alternate casue for the conclusion


"...playing in front of large crowds motivated the team...."

is undermined by,

D) In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer to where the batter stands.

outfield walls nullified the effects of the motivating crowd
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A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums tha [#permalink]

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venmic wrote:
A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums that seat 20,000 or fewer people, the team averaged 1 “home run” -- a ball hit across the field of play and over the opposing fence, called the outfield wall -- per game. In stadiums that seat between 20,000 and 40,000 people, the team averaged 2 home runs per game. Finally, in stadiums that seat 40,000 or more people, the team averaged 3 home runs per game. Obviously, the excitement of playing in front of large crowds motivated the team to hit more home runs.

Assuming that all stadiums during the season were filled to capacity, which of the following, if true, most undermines the argument above?

(A) The team's leading home run hitter hit more home runs in mid-sized stadiums than in large stadiums.
(B) The fans in the larger stadiums often cheered against the team.
(C) The team averaged only 2 home runs per game when playing in the league’s largest stadium.
(D) In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer to where the batter stands.
(E) The team’s announcer cited crowd noise as a major motivator for the team.

Why E cannot be the answer it implies there is an alternate cause for the conclusion?


I guess you are clear why (D) weakens the conclusion. Because the outfield walls are closer i.e. the distance to be covered is less, therefore, the batters hit more home runs.
Now, as for your question why (E) is not correct - there are two reasons - the team announcer cited crowd noise as a motivator but it doesn't make his statement true. The only thing we have to take to be true is that the announcer cited this. Whether it actually is true i.e. whether actually crowd noise is a motivator or not, we don't know.
Also, (E) actually supports the conclusion, if at all. The conclusion says that excitement of playing in front of large crowds motivates the team and (E) says that the noise the large crowd creates motivates the team. They are related, aren't they - larger the crowd, more the noise, more the excitement.

I would like to explain the first reason a little more:

Say there is an argument where the conclusion is "the politicians are corrupt because they are not paid well" and you need to strengthen it.
Let's say one of the options says, "my friend said that politicians are corrupt because they are not paid well"
This isn't what you are looking for. Just because someone else said it too, doesn't make it stronger. It is again someone's opinion. You are looking for facts that can strengthen the conclusion.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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venmic wrote:
A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums that seat 20,000 or fewer people, the team averaged 1 “home run” -- a ball hit across the field of play and over the opposing fence, called the outfield wall -- per game. In stadiums that seat between 20,000 and 40,000 people, the team averaged 2 home runs per game. Finally, in stadiums that seat 40,000 or more people, the team averaged 3 home runs per game. Obviously, the excitement of playing in front of large crowds motivated the team to hit more home runs.

Assuming that all stadiums during the season were filled to capacity, which of the following, if true, most undermines the argument above?

D) In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer to where the batter stands.
E) The team’s announcer cited crowd noise as a major motivator for the team.

Vvhy can E not be the ansvver it implies there is an alternate casue for the conclusion


The conclusion of the argument: The excitement of playing in front of LARGE CROWDS motivate the team to hit MORE HOME RUNS

Choice (E) stated the opinion of the team ANNOUNCER that the crowd noise motivate the team hit more => this choice actually strengthen the conclusion of the argument, not undermine

Choice (D) states another reason why the team hit more when the audiences increase. Not by the excitement of the audiences, but by the different distance of the stadiums that can stand with different number of audiences.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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I believe this is not fair question for international students especially those who don't know about baseball rules. Inside the question there is an assumption that HOME RUN score could be gain by a team when ball goes out side of the fence into crowds. Just after watching MONEY BALL movie i got the meaning of HOME RUN and when I checked the argument again it was so simple. :)
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Last edited by omidsa on 12 Aug 2012, 00:40, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2012, 00:15
@omidsa Yeah a bit difficult if you dont know what an outerwall and home run is in the base ball game. Can someone explain how to eliminate C?
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2012, 22:28
omidsa wrote:
I believe this is not fair question for international students especially those who don't know about baseball rules. Inside the question there is an assumption that HOME RUN score could be gain by a team when ball goes out side of the fence into crowds. Just after watching MONEY BALL movie i got the meaning of HOME RUN and when I checked the argument again it was so simple. :)


Actually, they have given enough information for international students. Otherwise, they wouldn't have explained "home run".

“home run” -- a ball hit across the field of play and over the opposing fence, called the outfield wall --

GMAT does not assume that you know the terminology used in every sport but they do expect you to be able to figure out after they explain the terminology.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2012, 22:31
crackHSW wrote:
@omidsa Yeah a bit difficult if you dont know what an outerwall and home run is in the base ball game. Can someone explain how to eliminate C?


They are talking about averages. Every element in the set needn't comply. Just because one stadium - the largest one - averaged 2 instead of 3 home runs, the conclusion is not weakened. Also, it doesn't tell us largest in what way - no of people or area of field of play etc.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2012, 23:12
Karishma

Great analysis.. just super like the vvay you think

thanks for all the help.............


VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
crackHSW wrote:
@omidsa Yeah a bit difficult if you dont know what an outerwall and home run is in the base ball game. Can someone explain how to eliminate C?


They are talking about averages. Every element in the set needn't comply. Just because one stadium - the largest one - averaged 2 instead of 3 home runs, the conclusion is not weakened. Also, it doesn't tell us largest in what way - no of people or area of field of play etc.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2012, 10:16
Just trying to think 'critically' regarding the point raised omidsa. Though the question does explain what a homerun is, it would be much easier for American candidates to grasp the point (as they already know it) while others have spend a little bit extra time and energy on it...............again, just trying to be devil's advocate, I understand there would always be cultural advantages / disadvantages as far as specific questions are concerned.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2012, 22:29
IndianExpress wrote:
Just trying to think 'critically' regarding the point raised omidsa. Though the question does explain what a homerun is, it would be much easier for American candidates to grasp the point (as they already know it) while others have spend a little bit extra time and energy on it...............again, just trying to be devil's advocate, I understand there would always be cultural advantages / disadvantages as far as specific questions are concerned.


Agreed - it would be far easier for someone who already knows what a homerun is. Someone who has never caught a glimpse of baseball may have to imagine 'field of play' and 'opposing fence' etc. It would certainly take more time and effort but it will still be do-able and hence acceptable.

Also, GMAT is an international exam and they are very thorough in their procedures. I am sure you know that they put some 'trial questions' in the exam which are not scored. These are for future exams. If they see too much of regional bias in a particular question, they do not include it in their tests. Say, if most Americans who get 700 answer this question correctly but most Asians who get 700 answer it incorrectly, then they know that it is not a question appropriate for an international exam. GMAC is extremely particular about the validity of their questions and hence we don't need to worry about whether GMAT is fair to everyone.

Also, I am sure Americans can compain about how GMAT is not 'fair' - the environment that Asians grow in gives high exposure to Mathematics in the education system and hence great Quant scores.
Asians can complain about how GMAT is not 'fair' - English is Americans' first language so they tend to do better in Verbal etc etc

Overall, I think it is a pretty level playing field for everyone. Hence, we should rather invest our time and effort into 'thinking critically' about the various concepts that will be tested.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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I totally missed what a Batter meant. I was thinking like a pastry Batter. I was wondering maybe there are stands where they sell batter. It probably doesn't make sense but still got me to eliminate the answer choice because it was absurd. So, I eliminated the choice.

Too bad this question didn't explain what a Batter or a Pitcher is. In the cricketing world they call a person hitting a ball a Batsman, not a Batter.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2012, 00:31
Given:
Team is more successful in larger venues.
It is assumed that the excitement of playing in front of large audience has motivated to hit more home runs.

A) The team's leading home run hitter hit more home runs in mid-sized stadiums than in large stadiums. - Gives out no precise information on the link between home runs and crowd - Incorrect
B)The fans in the larger stadiums often cheered against the team. - It is possible that team is motivated to prove the audience wrong and hit more home runs - Incorrect
C) The team averaged only 2 home runs per game when playing in the league’s largest stadium. - The number is still larger than the one hit in smaler stadium. Supports the assumption - Incorrect
D) In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer to where the batter stands. - Since the outfield wall has been constructed closer to where batter stands, it would have been easier for the batter to hit more home runs - Correct
E) The team’s announcer cited crowd noise as a major motivator for the team. - The assumption provided in the passage states the same - Incorrect
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2012, 20:58
venmic wrote:
A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums that seat 20,000 or fewer people, the team averaged 1 “home run” -- a ball hit across the field of play and over the opposing fence, called the outfield wall -- per game. In stadiums that seat between 20,000 and 40,000 people, the team averaged 2 home runs per game. Finally, in stadiums that seat 40,000 or more people, the team averaged 3 home runs per game. Obviously, the excitement of playing in front of large crowds motivated the team to hit more home runs.

Assuming that all stadiums during the season were filled to capacity, which of the following, if true, most undermines the argument above?

A) The team's leading home run hitter hit more home runs in mid-sized stadiums than in large stadiums.
B)The fans in the larger stadiums often cheered against the team.
C) The team averaged only 2 home runs per game when playing in the league’s largest stadium.
D) In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer to where the batter stands.
E) The team’s announcer cited crowd noise as a major motivator for the team.

Vvhy can E not be the ansvver it implies there is an alternate casue for the conclusion


Citing something and that action actually happening are two different things.

Additionally, we know that larger stadiums have larger crowd. However, we cannot say for sure that larger crowd = higher crowd noise. Therefore, I don't think E is a choice to consider.

I was about to pick B, but the passage does not talk about cheering against or for. It does not even talk about cheering. Just the mere presence of a large crowd excites the players. So B does not fall within the scope.

A and C are easy to eliminate as they do not affect the conclusion in any manner.

D provides an alternate reason for the conclusion and breaks the conclusion down. Smaller fields lead to more number of home runs and not the size of the crowd.

I hope this helps.
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A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In stadiums that seat 20,000 or fewer people, the team averaged 1 home run per game; in stadiums that seat between 20,000 and 40,000 people, the team averaged 2 home runs per game; and, in stadiums that seat 40,000 or more people, the team averaged 3 home runs per game. Obviously, the excitement of playing in front of large crowds motivated the team to hit more home runs.

Assuming that all stadiums during the season were filled to capacity, which of the following, if true, most undermines the argument above?

(A) The team’s leading home run hitter hit more home runs in mid-sized stadiums than in large stadiums.
(B) The fans in the larger stadiums often cheered against the team.
(C) The team averaged only 2 home runs per game when playing in the league’s largest stadium.
(D) In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer to home base.
(E) The team’s announcer cited crowd noise as a major motivator for the team.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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D) is right.

In order to create seating for the additional fans, the outfield walls in the larger stadiums were constructed closer
to home base.
>>> This means that in the stadium which could seat 40K people, 40K seats were actually not filled. The walls were brought closer to the base.

Hence, score is not proportional to the number of people in audience.
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Re: A certain baseball team has just completed its season. In [#permalink]

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Pre phrasing the answer helped me out in this question.

Premises suggest clearly that the team was hitting more home runs whenever it played in stadiums that had "Larger capacity to seat the audience"

Conclusion States that - "the excitement of playing in front of large crowds motivated the team to hit more home runs"

In order to weaken this reasoning - I thought of following options before checking the AC's

1) team was playing a weaker team in all those games where they hit Home runs

2) either the grounds were smaller where the team was playing

and then after Reading the AC's i could pick {D} easily.

{D} provides the reasoning that since home base was made smaller to seat more audience, Team was able to Hit more Home-runs in stadiums which were largely crowded.
Thus refuting the conclusion that the baseball team was playing better just because there were large crowds.
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