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# A controversial figure throughout most of his public life,

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A controversial figure throughout most of his public life, [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2009, 22:25
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A controversial figure throughout most of his public life, the Black leader Marcus Garvey advocated that some Blacks return to Africa, the land that, to him, symbolized the possibility of freedom.

(A) that some Blacks return to Africa, the land that, to him, symbolized the possibility of freedom
(B) that some Blacks return to the African land symbolizing the possibility of freedom to him
(C) that some Blacks return to Africa which was the land which symbolized the possibility of freedom to him
(D) some Black’s returning to Africa which was the land that to him symbolized the possibility of freedom
(E) some Black’s return to the land symbolizing the possibility of freedom to him, Africa
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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21 Jul 2009, 04:41
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IMO A.

With "advocate", "that" is required, as it represents a subjunctive construction. D and E are out for not starting with "that"

C is out, because of awkward use of "which" twice in "Africa which was the land which symbolized". I would have prefer a present participle form -ing instead of symbolized.

B is out, as the modifier is ambiguously defined. Not sure if "symbolizing the possibility..." is modifying the noun "the African land" or the whole phrase "some Blacks return to the African land"
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21 Jul 2009, 05:42
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bigoyal wrote:
IMO A.

With "advocate", "that" is required, as it represents a subjunctive construction. D and E are out for not starting with "that"

C is out, because of awkward use of "which" twice in "Africa which was the land which symbolized". I would have prefer a present participle form -ing instead of symbolized.

B is out, as the modifier is ambiguously defined. Not sure if "symbolizing the possibility..." is modifying the noun "the African land" or the whole phrase "some Blacks return to the African land"

Agree with you, B seems now incorrect.
I was confused b/w A and B, and liked symbolizing better than symbolized. So, chose B.
while choosing B, 'to him' also seems incorrect in B, still went for it.

Can someone explain in B, to what 'symbolizing' is referring to?
I feel that it is correctly referring to the 'The African Land' but the placement of 'to him' is incorrect.
Any takers?
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21 Jul 2009, 05:51
I am stuck between C and E.
In C the usage of 'which' twice is awkward
and in E the word 'Africa' seems misplaced

What is the OA?
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21 Jul 2009, 06:07
i think the 'symbolizing' in (b) refers to Marcus Garvey's advocating.

i'd have to go with (a).
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21 Jul 2009, 06:19
seongbae wrote:
i think the 'symbolizing' in (b) refers to Marcus Garvey's advocating.

i'd have to go with (a).

gerund in general without comma modifies the immediate preceding noun.

When you use comma then only gerund, modify the preceding clause (mostly its verb).

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21 Jul 2009, 06:27
A is clear without any ambiguity with modifiers.

What is OA?
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21 Jul 2009, 06:53
Good question. Between A and C.
I go with A because in C usage of 'which' twice is awkward and wordy.
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28 Jun 2010, 05:47
Which in all options are wrong because we should always have ",'" before which .Between A and B , A seems correct
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28 Jun 2010, 14:00
Definitely (A) since both (B) and (C) read awkwardly.
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28 Jun 2010, 14:04
to clarify above, for (B):

the phrase "symbolizing ..." is very ambiguous. it could be a verb modifier modifying the subject+verb (Blacks return...) or it could be a participle phrase modifying the noun (land) that precedes it.
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28 Jun 2010, 16:54
A for me.
Clearly D and E are out for omitting "that";
"advocated that some blacks return" is preferable to "advocated some blacks' returning (return)"
C: "which"..."which"...to him. redundant and location of "him" is uncomfortable from the noun.
B: "the African land" alters the original meaning; further, a change from the relative clause to a gerund makes the sentence further unclear.

Just my two cents... will appreciate corrections.
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29 Jun 2010, 11:50
i narrowed down to A and C... A is constructively better as C uses "which" twice
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17 Jul 2010, 22:25
which without comma is fatal. A and B left.

African land ---> change of meaning. It should be consistent with Africa.
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30 Jun 2011, 06:45
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A controversial figure throughout most of his public life, the Black leader Marcus Garvey advocated that some Blacks return to Africa, the land that, to him, symbolized the possibility of freedom.

(A) that some Blacks return to Africa, the land that, to him, symbolized the possibility of freedom
looks good --> leave it
(B) that some Blacks return to the African land symbolizing the possibility of freedom to him
changes meaning --> the african land symbolizing doesn't really explain exactly which land, but the original sentence has an intended meaning that Africa is the land
(C) that some Blacks return to Africa which was the land which symbolized the possibility of freedom to him
using which twice is poor word choice
(D) some Black’s returning to Africa which was the land that to him symbolized the possibility of freedom
(E) some Black’s return to the land symbolizing the possibility of freedom to him, Africa
D and E - advocates is a directive verb so it needs to be followed either by "that" + a verb in root form, or by an infinitive verb. neither are present here

Must be A
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01 Jul 2011, 00:50
A.+1.

Advocated makes sense followed by that and A is gramatically correct and concise.
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07 Aug 2011, 07:49
Wow! I was surprised I got this, 'cos it was Process Of Elimination all the way! B, D and E were out of the reckoning right at the start. A was better because it was more succinct and clear than C.
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07 Aug 2011, 10:41
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I wish to point out one factor of GMAT SC i.e. the importance or word order, an aspect that has been missed out in the posts.

Why are B C and E wrong? Because all of them state – freedom to him as though Garvey was talking about freedom to his personal self. However, the text means freedom for all the Blacks. Clubbing of the phrase ‘to him’ along with freedom is wrong word order.

Of course, this leaves out A and D, between which A is better because of using the present subjunctive verb ‘ that Blacks return’ rather than the incongruous gerund ‘Black’s returning’. The apostrophe plus s denotes that Black is used in singular rather than –“Blacks’” in plural.

Hope this gives one more insight into this topic now.
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Re: A controversial figure throughout most of his public life, [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2012, 05:49
+1 A.

Wrong usage of the relative pronoun "which" disqualifies most of the other options.

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Re: A controversial figure throughout most of his public life, [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2012, 14:32
In A, is it alright to use comma right after 'that'?

that some Blacks return to Africa, the land that, to him, symbolized the possibility of freedom
Re: A controversial figure throughout most of his public life,   [#permalink] 04 Jul 2012, 14:32

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