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# A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has

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A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 19 Dec 2018, 01:41
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A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously

(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was

(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were

(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously

(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously

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Originally posted by bakfed on 27 Jan 2010, 15:34.
Last edited by Bunuel on 19 Dec 2018, 01:41, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2016, 22:26
2
2
I love this question because it has all the potential to divide SC strategist into two groups.. One that believes language should come to you naturally and obscure rules, and principles should not be crammed or memorised. (Native Speakers). The second group is most likely to disagree based on the fact that English being their secondary language needs a lot of cramming and memorising,if not while speaking, at least while being written.(Non-Natives)

Anyway, This is my take on the question :- It has used a "RESUMPTIVE MODIFIER" in the correct option "D" .
Resumptive modifier is a modifier that picks up a word or phrase from a sentence that seems to have finished and then adds extra information and takes the reader into new line of thought(s)
The couple decided to go to Paris for their honeymoon, honeymoon that will strengthen their admiration for art, food and french language.

There is another kind of modifier called SUMMATIVE MODIFIER
A summative modifier quickly summarises the action of an earlier part of the sentence and then adds new information:
Jesus taught mankind benevolence, kindness, and compassion — three qualities that would help humans to ascend into heaven.

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was found in North America.
A. and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
B. and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
C. and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
D. fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
E. fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types that were previously
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2010, 16:28
1
I will go with D.

D compares fossils to fossils.

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously - compares they with dinasour
(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was - same as A
(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were - compares fossils to dinosaurs

(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously - correct comparison
(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously - same issue

also "they" is ambiguous in A and B
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2010, 19:51
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2
bakfed wrote:
A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously

My Take is D as well, this is a modifier problem with a comparison problem intertwined in it. Usually, extra information clauses or phrases are spawned off with a comma. What we have here is called a Resumptive modifier. It takes a particular word from the subject of the sentence that seems to be finished and adds information to take the reader to a new area of thought/idea.
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2014, 13:12
1
1
OA is D

It is an example that tests noun+noun modifier concept. another similar examples are

1)[b]Floating in the waters of the equatorial Pacific, an array of buoys collects and transmits data on long-term
interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, interactions that affect global climate.

2)Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps living in a highly
cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile
female workers
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2016, 21:45
1
bakfed wrote:
A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously

Two things are being tested here. 1) Pronoun error 2) Comparisons

'they' can refer to both paleontologists and fossils
Eliminate A and B

Comparison
X than Y, where X and Y need to be compared at the same level. Dinosaurs were not found previously in North America (Their fossils were. Eliminate C and E - Improper Comparison)

D Correct
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 12:06
1
prakashgmat2016 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
prakashgmat2016 wrote:
Hi sayan

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.
A. and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
B. and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
C. and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
D. fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
E. fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously

I read on blogs in GMAT Club and Manhattan Prep that they in option A can refer to FOSSILS or DINOSAURS. Hence THEY is ambiguous.
But, in my understanding THEY can absolutely refer to Dinosaurs without any ambiguity. I am replacing DINOSAURS with THEY and writing the below sentence.

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that DINOSAURS were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

Now DINOSAURS are being compared to DINOSAURS. So it is a logical comparison and make sense completely.

Can you please tell me if there is anything wrong in my understanding. If yes, where i am going wrong?
Also, please tell what is wrong with A according to you.

Regards,
Prakash

As you have mentioned that replacing "they" with "dinosaurs" is possible in option A, it is also possible to replace "they" with "fossils" (it does not matter that in the latter case the sentence would be grammatically wrong because of parallelism error.) It is even possible to replace "they" with "Paleontologists" (though in this case the meaning conveyed would be very different from what the author intended to). Thus "they" is definitely ambiguous since it can refer to 3 different antecedents.

thanks Sayan
But it leaves me even with more doubts. I have read in Manhattan SC book Pronoun Chapter that If there is more than one eligible antecedent of a pronoun but just one of them makes sense with the pronoun then it would be considered correct.

Concept book excerpt read as "If the intended antecedent of a single pronoun is clear (e.g., by virtue of parallelism and meaning), and
if there is no other reasonable antecedent, then don’t worry if there is an unreasonable antecedent somewhere
else in the sentence."

Here dinosaurs makes sense so even if there are more eligible antecedent such as "fossils" and "Paleontologists", dinosaurs should still make sense. Am i correct

The problem with "they" is that all the 3 eligible antecedents make sense, i.e. there are 3 reasonable antecedents (not just one).
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2014, 00:10
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A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously -- they is ambiguous -- fossils or Paleontologist-- comparison error.
(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was -- same as as A -- parallelism issue -- sentence structure ambiguity.
(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were -- comparison error -- parallelism required.
(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously -- absolute phrase modifier used -- comparison is proper.
(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously -- comparison error.
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Apr 2015, 12:28
The original sentence has two error.
1. The pronoun 'they' is ambiguous. It seems to be pointing to paleontologists instead of fossils. They should be replaced by fossils.
2. Fossils are wrongly compared with similar dinosaur type. It should be compared with the fossils of similar dinosaur type.

A. and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
-- Error 1 and error 2
B. and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
-- Error 1; ambiguous antecedent for pronoun they.
C. and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
--Error 2 and also were should be singular, since any is singular
D. fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
-- Correct.
E. fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously
-- Error 2

Originally posted by animesh_an on 09 Apr 2015, 11:35.
Last edited by animesh_an on 09 Apr 2015, 12:28, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2015, 11:43
souvik101990 wrote:
A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

A. and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously

B. and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was

C. and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were

D. fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously

E. fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously

A. and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously -- ambiguous use of pronoun they

B. and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was -- ambiguous use of pronoun they

C. and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were -- comparing fossils with dinosaurs

D. fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously -- correct

E. fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously -- comparing fossils with dinosaurs
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2016, 02:59
bakfed wrote:
A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

Main focus of the sentence is fossils of dinosaurs not the dinosaurs themselves. This should help us in POE:

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
....dinosaurs...older than....any dinosaur type.....- wrong comparison.

(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
dinosaur type that previously was found - wrong meaning

(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
utah has yielded fossils....and fossils are ... - wrong meaning. we just dont need 'and' here.

(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
now read the sentence like this: utah has yielded fossils of...dinosaurs..., fossils that are.......older than those of..similar dinosaur type...previously found. Correct comparison of fossils.

(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously
fossils ..older than ..dinosaurs - wrong comparison.
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 11:34
prakashgmat2016 wrote:
Hi sayan

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.
A. and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
B. and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
C. and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
D. fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
E. fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously

I read on blogs in GMAT Club and Manhattan Prep that they in option A can refer to FOSSILS or DINOSAURS. Hence THEY is ambiguous.
But, in my understanding THEY can absolutely refer to Dinosaurs without any ambiguity. I am replacing DINOSAURS with THEY and writing the below sentence.

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that DINOSAURS were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

Now DINOSAURS are being compared to DINOSAURS. So it is a logical comparison and make sense completely.

Can you please tell me if there is anything wrong in my understanding. If yes, where i am going wrong?
Also, please tell what is wrong with A according to you.

Regards,
Prakash

As you have mentioned that replacing "they" with "dinosaurs" is possible in option A, it is also possible to replace "they" with "fossils" (it does not matter that in the latter case the sentence would be grammatically wrong because of parallelism error.) It is even possible to replace "they" with "Paleontologists" (though in this case the meaning conveyed would be very different from what the author intended to). Thus "they" is definitely ambiguous since it can refer to 3 different antecedents.
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 11:49
sayantanc2k wrote:
prakashgmat2016 wrote:
Hi sayan

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.
A. and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
B. and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
C. and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
D. fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
E. fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously

I read on blogs in GMAT Club and Manhattan Prep that they in option A can refer to FOSSILS or DINOSAURS. Hence THEY is ambiguous.
But, in my understanding THEY can absolutely refer to Dinosaurs without any ambiguity. I am replacing DINOSAURS with THEY and writing the below sentence.

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that DINOSAURS were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

Now DINOSAURS are being compared to DINOSAURS. So it is a logical comparison and make sense completely.

Can you please tell me if there is anything wrong in my understanding. If yes, where i am going wrong?
Also, please tell what is wrong with A according to you.

Regards,
Prakash

As you have mentioned that replacing "they" with "dinosaurs" is possible in option A, it is also possible to replace "they" with "fossils" (it does not matter that in the latter case the sentence would be grammatically wrong because of parallelism error.) It is even possible to replace "they" with "Paleontologists" (though in this case the meaning conveyed would be very different from what the author intended to). Thus "they" is definitely ambiguous since it can refer to 3 different antecedents.

thanks Sayan
But it leaves me even with more doubts. I have read in Manhattan SC book Pronoun Chapter that If there is more than one eligible antecedent of a pronoun but just one of them makes sense with the pronoun then it would be considered correct.

Concept book excerpt read as "If the intended antecedent of a single pronoun is clear (e.g., by virtue of parallelism and meaning), and
if there is no other reasonable antecedent, then don’t worry if there is an unreasonable antecedent somewhere
else in the sentence."

Here dinosaurs makes sense so even if there are more eligible antecedent such as "fossils" and "Paleontologists", dinosaurs should still make sense. Am i correct
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24 Feb 2020, 23:44
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Re: A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has   [#permalink] 24 Feb 2020, 23:44
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