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A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2010, 11:14
IMO C...
The option correctly continues the first clause with the second..
Substitute the choice in the answer and compare your sentence with the one formed using option C...

You would clearly be able to spot the difference..
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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2010, 10:30
marshpa wrote:
IMO B, here are my takes-
(A) believed to be--if we use this, this fragment refers back to wingspan. This means that wingspan of 36 feet is believed to be the largest creature world has ever seen.
(B) and that is believed to be--Correct
(C) and it is believed to have been-- believe to have been?? it is still the largest so incorrect tense.
(D) which was, it is believed--No past tense, we need present tense to show that creature is the largest.
(E) which is believed to be--I almost had this but later figured that we need and before this conjunction, this refers to wingspan again. But I am little doubtful here.

I think B is the correct choice because simple present should be used for "stating facts or general truths".The the sentence states a truth.

Moreover, 'That' which marks the beginning of the underlined part is parallel with the previous 'that'.

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2010, 02:32
hi tommy ,
i think comma is necessary
...... , past participle meaning no longer true but it is true..

......, and clause .... so this structure is also correct ..

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2010, 02:59
mainhoon wrote:
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

C it is!

D & E are out for use of "which" - referring to wing span, and you would expect something about the wing span to apear in the following part.

C uses correctly the right tense with "have been" (it was back then and still is) connecting to "has ever seen"

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2010, 09:06
We need a main verb...... 'is', 'are'.....without which it becomes a run-on sentence. The main verb is missing in A.

option A reads.....A huge flying reptile that....... had a wingspan......, believed to be the

The correct option should be

A huge flying reptile that....... had a wingspan..... and it [Quetzalcoatlus] is believed to.......

A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been - Also, 'have been' is parallel to 'has ever seen'
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 17:44
mirjuni wrote:
Can anyone explain the correct choice? Thanks.

8. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

(C). The last phrase, "___ the largest flying creature the world has ever seen," is referring to the Quetzalcoatlus itself. All of the choices but (C) are referring to the wingspan, and not to the reptile itself. (C) fits because of the "it is believed to have been", where "it" refers to the reptile and not the wingspan.

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 20:25
dkverma wrote:
What's wrong with B?

The "that" in "that is believed to be" refers to the wingspan and not the reptile, just like all of the other ones except (C). It would work if it said "and that is believed to be the largest wingspan the world has ever seen."

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2010, 22:42
mirjuni wrote:
Can anyone explain the correct choice? Thanks.

8. A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

A-- what is believed.. the principal clause is Que.. had a wingspan of 36 feet but to make the last sentence subordinate clause we need a relative pronoun .
B -- that is awkward.
D -- which is referring to feet and was is also wrong. we still believe that
E-- which is referring to feet

C clearly breaks the sentence and uses a proper present perfect tense that is || with the world has ever seen.
C is the ans

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2010, 08:32
Can a Grammar Guru please get down into the weeds of GMAT grammar and explain this one to me?

I would have picked the OA before I ever picked up a GMAT book... but ambiguous pronouns and clear antecedents and all the technical jargon played their part in creating some doubt as to why "it" in option c is not ambiguous? "it" can refer to:
1. Quetzalcoatlus; or
2. the wingspan

Granted 2. would be illogical... but when something seems preposterous, is that sufficient grounds to totally discard ambiguity and conclude that there is a "clear antecedent"?

A high–flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

a) believed to be

b) and that is believed to be

c) and it is believed to have been

d) which was, it is believed

e) which is believed to be

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2010, 10:50
Great question!

Here's my logic for which C is ok grammatically:

C: "A high–flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, and it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seen."

First, let's get to the core of this sentence. Everything up to "years ago" is a warm-up that can be ignored. So now we have:

"The Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, and it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seen."

Now, we essentially have an interesting case of parallelism here:

The Quetzalcoatlus...
2. is believed to have been...

Since we are dealing with parallelism, we really only have one subject in the sentence: the Quetzalcoatlus. Thus, both the "had" and "is" clauses refer to the bird itself.

That help?

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2010, 09:07
Thanks Brett --- that's a great approach... much appreciated.

but if we want to consider the use of "it" in C, then can we conclude that an "it" can only be ambiguous when there are two or more competing "subjects" in the sentence....

the "wingspan" I think is the "object" of the sentence? and so need not be tested against an "it" to test for ambiguity?

essence of the Q: is there there any rule that ambiguous pronouns only come up in the context of the presence of multiple "subjects" and "objects" appearing in the sentence do not create the same problems? Thanks.

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2010, 10:20
I've never come across an instance where you can have two objects in a sentence and a single ambiguous pronoun. I've also never come across an instance where you can have an object and a subject of the same type and have the pronoun be unambiguous. Quite simply, the rule is this: A pronoun must clearly refer to one, and only one, antecedent.

I suppose an example would be:

"Bill gave Ted \$5, and he said thank you."

Here, "Bill" is the subject and "Ted" is the object. The "he" is still ambiguous even though we have only one "subject." Although we know logically that Ted is the one who would need to say "thank you," grammatically there's some ambiguity there.

Brett
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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2010, 12:55
BKimball wrote:
I've never come across an instance where you can have two objects in a sentence and a single ambiguous pronoun. I've also never come across an instance where you can have an object and a subject of the same type and have the pronoun be unambiguous. Quite simply, the rule is this: A pronoun must clearly refer to one, and only one, antecedent.

I suppose an example would be:

"Bill gave Ted \$5, and he said thank you."

Here, "Bill" is the subject and "Ted" is the object. The "he" is still ambiguous even though we have only one "subject." Although we know logically that Ted is the one who would need to say "thank you," grammatically there's some ambiguity there.

Brett

OK, so how can "it" be unambiguous here?

The Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, and it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.

If the "it" were removed, it would be better: The Quetz had X, and is Y.

Thoughts on that?

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2011, 08:14
Thx Raptor. Picking c is not the issue. My question pertains to why "it" in C is not ambiguous, i.e., it possesses a valid "clear antecedent" as stated somewhere in the OG; in terms of choosing b/w wingspan vs. the Q in relation to "IT":

The Q <------------------------ "IT" ---------------------------> Wingspan

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2011, 18:27
noboru and gmat1011 -

The clause says "it is believed to have been the largest flying creature the world has ever seen."

The antecedent of a pronoun has to be clear, unambiguous, and logical. You cannot logically say "The wingspan is believed to be the largest flying creature..." because a wingspan is not a creature. As such, "wingspan" would be a nonsensical antecedent.

Similarly, if a sentence said:

"The beaver knocked over the tree, and then it ate it." --> Technically, both "its" could be considered ambiguous. However, I'd argue that since a tree cannot eat something, you're pretty safe writing this sentence.

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2011, 20:12
monarc,

Good question. Let's dive into the difference between "have been" and "had been"...

"Have been" is used for an action from the past that is still in progress. For example:

"I have been walking since 2:00 p.m., and I'm not tired yet!"
"I have been searching for my dog all month, but we haven't found him!"

Notice how in these examples, there is no past tense verb in the sentence and I am still walking/searching. As a result, I use "have been" (present perfect tense).

On the other hand, "had been" is used for an action that happened before something else in the sentence occurred. For example:

"I had been walking for six hours before I stepped on a rock and sprained my ankle."
"I had been searching for nine hours before I decided to give up."

Notice how in these examples, you do have a past tense verb in the sentence ("stepped" and "decided") that describes something that occurred after the first thing started. Since you have an ongoing action in the way past and another action in the past that comes later in time than the first action, you need to use "had been" (past perfect tense).

Finally, notice that it doesn't matter which part comes first; the past perfect part can follow the past tense part in the sentence even though the order in which they occurred is the reverse. Just remember that if there are two things that happened at different times in the past, you'll need to use past perfect somewhere. For example:

"Before I stepped on a rock and sprained my ankle, I had been walking for six hours."
"I decided to give up after I had been searching for nine hours."

Happy studying!

Brett
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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2011, 09:41
mainhoon wrote:
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

+1 for C.

First read through: "and" is needed to keep original meaning of sentence.

A: the sentence is ambiguous...is the 36 foot wingspan believed to be the largest flying creature? nope, A out.
D and E: ",which" refers to the thing (noun) right before the comma, so we will have the same issues as A.

between B and C, chose C because "that" in choice B can refer to the wingspan OR Quetzalcoatlus.

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2011, 11:14
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Here's the explanation.

Let's consider the question stem, specifically the underlined part. Here, 'believed to be' is an adjective modifier/clause and it is supposed to modify the noun 'Quetzalcoatlus'. However, the adjective modifier/clause should modify the noun immediately before. In this case, the noun before it is '36 feet'. Hence the modifier incorrectly modifies the wrong noun.
Now, let's look for an answer which will resolve this issue.

Option A - incorrect for the reason mentioned above.

Option B - This option connects the clause 'believed to be ...' using the conjunction 'and'. However, 'that' in the answer incorrectly modifies the clause 'the Quetzalcoatlus had a wing span of 36 feet' instead of only modifying the noun 'Quetzalcoatlus'. Hence this is incorrect as well.

Option C - This option correctly modifies the noun 'Quetzalcoatlus' by using the pronoun 'it' for reference and connecting the adjective modifier using the conjunction 'and'.

Option D - this is very ambiguous and also incorrectly uses the relative pronoun 'which' to modify the noun '36 feet' immediately preceding it.

Option E - this option also incorrectly modifies the noun '36 feet' immediately preceding the adjective modifier 'believed to be ...'.

Hope this helps.

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2011, 12:39
A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet, believed to be the largest flying creature the world has ever seen.
(A) believed to be [an verb required for passive purpose]
(B) and that is believed to be [Awkward]
(C) and it is believed to have been [Correct]
(D) which was, it is believed, [Awkward]
(E) WHICH is believed to be [Awkward]
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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2011, 18:24
SudiptoGmat wrote:
Its a bad question...all options are wrong.

A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet is in wrong structure here..

Well, not quite. It may not be a familiar way for most people to write, but on the GMAT, this structure is OK.

It's basically what we identify as Framework #3: [phrase], [main sentence]

Here the [phrase] - "A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago]"

The [main sentence] = "The Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 36 feet."

So the structure is: [Phrase], [main sentence].
The [phrase] describes the subject of the main sentence - which in this case is the Quetzalcoatlus. Does it make sense? Is the Quetzalcoatlus a huge flying reptile that died out? Sure. Sounds fine.

Of course, you can also rewrite the sentence like so:

"The Quetzalcoatlus, a huge flying reptile that died out..."

Both versions are OK.

As for the question itself, here we want (C). Since there's a comma after "36 feet" - the phrase afterwards should describe the "36 feet." That is, UNLESS what follows is actually not a phrase. (A), (D), and (E) are all phrases that cannot make sense in this structure.

(B) does not make sense because "that is believed to be..." needs to describe the 36 feet, which doesn't make sense.

Only (C) says "and it is believed to have been..." - which continues the sentence and says "it" to reference the reptile. NOW, what follows: "the largest flying creature" accurately describes the "it" - the Quetzalcoatlus.

So (C) is the only one that makes sense.

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Re: A huge flying reptile that died out with the dinosaurs some 65 million   [#permalink] 27 Nov 2011, 18:24

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