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# A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel

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A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 20 Aug 2019, 01:05
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A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sell” or “soft-sell” strategy is appropriate for a specific target market. The hard-sell approach involves the use of direct, forceful claims regarding the benefits of the advertised brand over competitors’ offerings. In contrast, the soft-sell approach involves the use of advertising claims that imply superiority more subtly.

One positive aspect of the hard-sell approach is its use of very simple and straightforward product claims presented claims presented as explicit conclusions, with little room for confusion regarding the advertiser's message. However, some consumers may resent being told what to believe and some may distrust the message. Resentment and distrust often lead to counterargumentation and to boomerang effects where consumers come to believe conclusions diametrically opposed to conclusions endorsed in advertising claims. By contrast, the risk of boomerang erects is greatly reduced with soft-sell approaches. One way to implement the soft-sell approach is to provide information that implies the main conclusions the advertiser wants the consumer to draw, but leave the conclusions themselves unstated. Because consumers are invited to make up their own minds, implicit conclusions reduce the risk of resentment, distrust, and counterargumentation.

Recent research on consumer memory and judgement suggests another advantage of implicit conclusions. Beliefs or conclusions that are self-generated are more accessible from memory than beliefs from conclusions provided explicitly by other individuals, and thus have a greater impact on judgment and decision making. Moreover, self-generated beliefs are often perceived as more accurate and valid than the beliefs of others, because other individuals may be perceived as less knowledgeable, or may be perceived as manipulative or deliberately misleading.

Despite these advantages, implicit conclusions may mot always be more effective than explicit conclusions. One risk is that some consumers may fail to draw their own conclusions and thus miss the point of the message. Inferential activity is likely only when consumers are motivated and able to engage in effortful cognitive processes. Another risk is that some consumers may draw conclusions other than the one intended. Even if inferential activity is likely, there is no guarantee that consumers will follow the path provided by the advertiser. Finally, a third risk is that consumers may infer the intended conclusion but question the validity of their inference.

RC00492-01 It can be inferred from the passage that one reason an advertiser might prefer a hard-sell approach to a soft-sell approach is that

A) the risks of boomerang effects are minimized when the conclusions an advertiser wants the consumer to draw are themselves left unstated

B) counterargumentation is likely from consumers who fail to draw their own conclusions regarding an advertising claims

C) inferential activity is likely to occur even if consumers perceive themselves to be more knowledgeable than the individuals presenting product claims

D) research on consumer memory suggests that the explicit conclusions provided by an advertiser using hard-sell approach have a significant impact on decision making

E) the information presented by an advertiser using the soft-sell approach may imply different conclusions to different consumers
OA:E

RC00492-02 Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the hard-sell approach EXCEPT

A) its overall message is readily grasped

B) it appeals to consumers' knowledge about the product

C) it makes to explicit claims that the advertised brand is superior to other brands

D) it uses statements that are expressed very clearly

E) it makes claims in the form of direct conclusions
OA:B

RC00492-03 It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide

B) information that implies the advertiser’s intended conclusion but leaves that conclusion unstated

C) subtle evidence that the advertised product is superior to that of competitors

D) information comparing the advertised product with its competitors

E) opportunity for consumers to generate their own beliefs or conclusions
OA:A

RC00492-04 The primary purpose of the passage is to

A) point out the risks involved in the use of a particular advertising strategy

B) make a case or the superiority of one advertising strategy over another

C) illustrate the ways in which two advertising strategies may be implemented

E) contrast the types of target markets for which two advertising strategies are appropriate
OA:D

RC00492-05 which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 25-28(Because consumers are invited to make up their) in the context of the passage as a whole?

A) it reiterates a distinction between two advertising strategies that is made in the first paragraph

B) it explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph

C) it suggests that a risk described earlier in the paragraph is less serious than some researchers believe it to be

D) it outlines why the strategy described in the previous sentence involves certain risks for an advertisement’s

E) it introduces an argument that will be refunded in the following paragraph
OA:B

RC00492-06 It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers

A) have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message

B) have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory

C) are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belong

D) are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s message

E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion
OA:E

RC00492-07 It can be inferred from the passage that the research mentioned in line 43 (Recent research on consumer memory and judgment) supports which of the following statements?

A) implicit conclusions are more likely to capture accurately the point of the advertiser’s message than are explicit conclusions.

B) Counterargument action is less likely to occur if an individual’s beliefs or conclusions are readily accessible from memory.

C) The hard-sell approach results in conclusions that are more difficult for the consumer to recall than are conclusions resulting from the soft-sell approach.

D) When the beliefs of others are presented as definite and forceful claims, they are perceived to be as accurate as self-generated beliefs.

E) Despite the advantages of implicit conclusions, the hard-sell approach involves fewer risks for the advertiser than does the soft-sell approach.
OA:C

Originally posted by RaviChandra on 11 Oct 2015, 21:59.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 20 Aug 2019, 01:05, edited 7 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (214).
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2017, 22:53
5
1
srikanth9502 wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
12 mins all correct. Let me know if there are any queries.

Sent from my Lenovo YT3-850M using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

Let me try. The question is:

16 It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers

A) have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message
B) have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory
C) are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belong
D) are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s message
E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion

According to the passage, boomerang effect occurs in hard cell approach where explicit conclusions about the superiority of the product are stated by advertising managers to the customers. However, some consumers, who already had their own belief may distrust these conclusions eventually leading to boomerang effect. Since, according to the passage, own beliefs are considered to be more accurate than those presented by others, these customers will be skeptical about these hard conclusions.

POE:
A) have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message Claims to which consumers are exposed will not be diametrically opposite. Rather, claims consumers already have will be diametrically opposite to those they have exposed

B) have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory Even if the conclusions are readily available, we don't know whether they are in line with the advertising manager's conclusion or they are opposite

C) are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belongIf the consumers do not belong to those specific markets they will not have any beliefs and there will be no boomerang effect.

D) are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s messageIf the consumers themselves are confused , they are not likely to have distrust over advertising manager's beliefs

E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion If the consumers come with suspicion, means they already have self beliefs and they are likely to contradict with advertising manager's beliefs which ma lead to boomerang effect.

Kudos if it helped...
##### General Discussion
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2016, 20:49
1
1
11. It can be inferred from the passage that one reason an advertiser might prefer a hard-sell approach to a soft-sell approach is that
E) the information presented by an advertiser using the soft-sell approach may imply different conclusions to different consumers
"the hard-sell approach is its use of very simple and straightforward product claims presented claims presented as explicit conclusions" &"the soft-sell approach is to provide information that implies the main conclusions the advertiser wants the consumer to draw"

12.Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the hard-sell approach EXCEPT
B) it appeals to consumers' knowledge about the product
4 other choices each are mentioned in the passage.

13. It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide
"Inferential activity is likely only when consumers are motivated and able to engage in effortful cognitive processes."

14. The primary purpose of the passage is to
" The first passage introduce two methods, the other ones discuss disadvantage and advantage of the two methods"

15. Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 25-28(Because consumers are invited to make up their) in the context of the passage as a whole?
B) it explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph
"Because consumers are invited to make up their own minds, implicit conclusions reduce the risk of resentment, distrust, and counterargumentation" these risks are belonged to the hard-sell methods.

16. It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers
E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion
"counterargumentation and to boomerang effects where consumers come to believe conclusions diametrically opposed to conclusions endorsed in advertising claims."

17. It can be inferred from the passage that the research mentioned in line 43 (Recent research on consumer memory and judgment) supports which of the following statements?
C) The hard-sell approach results in conclusions that are more difficult for the consumer to recall than are conclusions resulting from the soft-sell approach.
"Beliefs or conclusions that are self-generated are more accessible from memory than beliefs from conclusions provided explicitly by other individuals, and thus have a greater impact on judgment and decision making"
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2017, 01:50
For 13th, i too first opted for A:Motivation which will lead to inferential activity.
But later in the para its mentioned this "Even if inferential activity is likely, there is no guarantee that consumers will follow the path provided by the advertiser."
Even inferential activity will not prevent this risk. So ultimately motivation is also not helpful.

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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2017, 02:27
JarvisR wrote:
12 mins all correct. Let me know if there are any queries.

would u please explain Q13It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide
B. information that implies the advertiser’s intended conclusion but leaves that conclusion unstated
C. subtle evidence that the advertised product is superior to that of competitors
D. information comparing the advertised product with its competitors
E. opportunity for consumers to generate their own beliefs or conclusions
i chose B
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2017, 12:32
YangYichen wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
12 mins all correct. Let me know if there are any queries.

Q13.It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide
B. information that implies the advertiser’s intended conclusion but leaves that conclusion unstated -- This is soft sell approach
C. subtle evidence that the advertised product is superior to that of competitors
D. information comparing the advertised product with its competitors
E. opportunity for consumers to generate their own beliefs or conclusions
i chose B

hi YangYichen ,
The three risks mentioned in the last paragraph are -
1. One risk is that some consumers may fail to draw their own conclusions and thus miss the point of the message. Inferential activity is likely only when consumers are motivated and able to engage in effortful cognitive processes.
2. Another risk is that some consumers may draw conclusions other than the one intended
3. Finally, a third risk is that consumers may infer the intended conclusion but question the validity of their inference.

Hope this helps!!
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2018, 02:01
Can anyone pl explain me my the answer for Q.12 is B.
I thought it to be A. If we could easily grasp the message of the advertiser then their would be no question of mistrust and resentment, the features which are discussed in the second paragraph
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2018, 07:48
hassu13 wrote:
Can anyone pl explain me my the answer for Q.12 is B.
I thought it to be A. If we could easily grasp the message of the advertiser then their would be no question of mistrust and resentment, the features which are discussed in the second paragraph

The answer is B because the question asks about 'each of the following is mentioned EXCEPT'', the other four are explicitly stated in the passage hence only B left
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2018, 06:31
Quote:
RC00492-06 It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers

A) have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message

B) have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory

C) are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belong

D) are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s message

E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion

Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn,
sayantanc2
VeritasPrepKarishma

I genuinely need you experts help.
I doubt A, if customers are exposed to claims that oppose advertisers' ones, then they believe the oppositing claims, then they distrust advetisers' claims,
why A is incorrect?

Have a nice day
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2018, 06:33
Quote:
RC00492-06 It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers

A) have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser???s message

B) have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory

C) are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belong

D) are confused regarding the point of the advertiser???s message

E) come to view the advertiser???s message with suspicion

Hi GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn,
sayantanc2
VeritasPrepKarishma

I genuinely need you experts help.
I doubt A, if customers are exposed to claims that oppose advertisers' ones, then they believe the oppositing claims, then they distrust advetisers' claims,
why A is incorrect?

Have a nice day
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2018, 03:52
P1 - AM - HS/SS and why?
P2 - +/- for HS ; -ve of HS reduced in SS.
P3 - a syudy on decision making.
P4 - ss is advantageous; but risks are there.
main point - two type of approaches. good and bad for both are termed.

RC00492-01 It can be inferred from the passage that one reason an advertiser might prefer a hard-sell approach to a soft-sell approach is that
PT - something that is against ss or in favor of HS.

E) the information presented by an advertiser using the soft-sell approach may imply different conclusions to different consumers

---------------------------------

RC00492-02 Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the hard-sell approach EXCEPT

A) its overall message is readily grasped - T
B) it appeals to consumers' knowledge about the product - F
C) it makes to explicit claims that the advertised brand is superior to other brands - T
D) it makes explicit claims that the advertised brand is superior to other brands - T
E) it makes claims in the form of direct conclusions - T

---------------------------------------------

RC00492-03 It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide
Despite these advantages, implicit conclusions may mot always be more effective than explicit conclusions. One risk is that some consumers may fail to draw their own conclusions and thus miss the point of the message. Inferential activity is likely only when consumers are motivated and able to engage in effortful cognitive processes. Another risk is that some consumers may draw conclusions other than the one intended. Even if inferential activity is likely, there is no guarantee that consumers will follow the path provided by the advertiser. Finally, a third risk is that consumers may infer the intended conclusion but question the validity of their inference.

A) motivation for consumers to think about the advertisement’s message - seems the best of the lot. as first risk will not rise. if consumer will think then he/she will draw a conclusion.
B) information that implies the advertiser’s intended conclusion but leaves that conclusion unstated - no; this one is a risk.
C) subtle evidence that the advertised product is superior to that of competitors - well this choice is irrelevant, As in this case possibility for any risk is equal.
D) information comparing the advertised product with its competitors - seems a risk to me. afterall one can infer anything.
E) opportunity for consumers to generate their own beliefs or conclusions - This is one of the risk .
--------------------------------------------

RC00492-04 The primary purpose of the passage is to

A) point out the risks involved in the use of a particular advertising strategy - not just risk.
B) make a case or the superiority of one advertising strategy over another - no
C) illustrate the ways in which two advertising strategies may be implemented - no
E) contrast the types of target markets for which two advertising strategies are appropriate - no

--------------------------------------------

RC00492-05 which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 25-28(Because consumers are invited to make up their) in the context of the passage as a whole?

Because consumers are invited to make up their own minds, implicit conclusions reduce the risk of resentment, distrust, and counterargumentation.

B) it explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph -

---------------------------------------------

RC00492-06 It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers

Resentment and distrust often lead to counterargumentation and to boomerang effects where consumers come to believe conclusions diametrically opposed to conclusions endorsed in advertising claims.

However, some consumers may resent being told what to believe and some may distrust the message.

E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion -

------------------------------------------------
RC00492-07 It can be inferred from the passage that the research mentioned in line 43 (Recent research on consumer memory and judgment) supports which of the following statements?
PT - self generated beliefs are better then those come from someone else.

C) The hard-sell approach results in conclusions that are more difficult for the consumer to recall than are conclusions resulting from the soft-sell approach. - Well, in HS whole thing is concluded by someone else, while in SS every conclusion is implemented by someone.
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2018, 12:06

Question #6

zoezhuyan wrote:
Quote:
RC00492-06 It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers

A) have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message

B) have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory

C) are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belong

D) are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s message

E) come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion

Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja,MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2 VeritasPrepKarishma

I genuinely need you experts help.
I doubt A, if customers are exposed to claims that oppose advertisers' ones, then they believe the oppositing claims, then they distrust advetisers' claims,
why A is incorrect?

We're asked to pick the choice that presents a "boomerang effect" scenario that can be inferred from the passage. So let's recall how the author describes the boomerang effect:

...some consumers may resent being told what to believe and some may distrust the message. Resentment and distrust often lead to counterargumentation and to boomerang effects where consumers come to believe conclusions diametrically opposed to conclusions endorsed in advertising claims.

The author describes this process:
• A hard sell is presented to the consumer.
• The consumer resents being told what to believe or distrusts the message.
• That resentment and distrust then results in a boomerang effect, where the consumer believes a conclusion diametrically opposed to the one that was presented to them in the hard sell.

Compare this to the picture that (A) is painting:
• A consumer is exposed to a claim that is diametrically opposed to the hard sell.
• A hard sell is presented to that consumer.
• The consumer then experiences a boomerang effect? Huh?

The author defines a boomerang effect as an internal shift in the mind of the consumer, which is a result of resentment and distrust.

But choice (A) seems to define a boomerang effect as the outcome of some external persuasion separate from the advertiser's message. This is not supported by the passage, so we cannot accept it as an inference. That's why we eliminate (A).

I hope this helps!
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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18 May 2019, 10:39
Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 25-28(Because consumers are invited to make up their) in the context of the passage as a whole?

A) it reiterates a distinction between two advertising strategies that is made in the first paragraph

B) it explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph

C) it suggests that a risk described earlier in the paragraph is less serious than some researchers believe it to be

D) it outlines why the strategy described in the previous sentence involves certain risks for an advertisement’s

E) it introduces an argument that will be refunded in the following paragraph.

Thank you so much!
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Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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28 May 2019, 06:17
1
gmatpriestess wrote:
Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 25-28(Because consumers are invited to make up their) in the context of the passage as a whole?

A) it reiterates a distinction between two advertising strategies that is made in the first paragraph

B) it explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph

C) it suggests that a risk described earlier in the paragraph is less serious than some researchers believe it to be

D) it outlines why the strategy described in the previous sentence involves certain risks for an advertisement’s

E) it introduces an argument that will be refunded in the following paragraph.

Thank you so much!

To understand the context of the quotation, let's first examine the passage up until that point:

The first paragraph introduces two advertising strategies: "hard-sell" and "soft-sell."

The second paragraph examines the effect of including explicit conclusions in advertisements, which is common in the "hard-sell" strategy. It makes the following points:

• The practice of including explicit conclusions has a positive impact in "hard-sell" advertisements, because there is "little room for confusion regarding the advertiser's message."
• However, this practice also has a negative impact on "hard-sell" advertisements: "consumers may resent being told what to believe." This leads to a "boomerang effect" in which consumers conclude the opposite of what a "hard-sell" advertisement concludes.
• By using a "soft-sell" strategy in which conclusions are implied rather than stated explicitly, advertisements reduce the risk of the "boomerang effect" described above

Here is where the relevant quotation makes an appearance:
Quote:
Because consumers are invited to make up their own minds, implicit conclusions reduce the risk of resentment, distrust, and counterargumentation.

This sentence provides evidence to support the earlier claim that soft-sell advertisements have a reduced risk of the "boomerang effect" that plagues hard-sell advertisements. Letting consumers make up their own minds stops them from resenting, distrusting, and arguing against the message of the advertisement.

Take a look at answer (B):
Quote:
B) it explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph

The "drawback" mentioned in this answer choice is the "boomerang effect" discussed in the passage. The sentence in question explains how soft-sell advertisements avoid this drawback. (B) is the correct answer choice.

I hope that helps!
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Concentration: Finance, Finance
GPA: 3.13
WE: Business Development (Energy and Utilities)
Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2019, 03:37
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Official Explanation

Q1). It can be inferred from the passage that one reason an advertiser might prefer a hard-sell approach to a soft-sell approach is that
A. the risks of boomerang effects are minimized when the conclusions an advertiser wants the consumer to draw are themselves left unstated
B. counterargumentation is likely from consumers who fail to draw their own conclusions regarding an advertising claim
C. inferential activity is likely to occur even if consumers perceive themselves to be more knowledgeable than the individuals presenting product claims
D. research on consumer memory suggests that the explicit conclusions provided by an advertiser using the hard-sell approach have a significant impact on decision making
E. the information presented by an advertiser using the soft-sell approach may imply different conclusions to different consumers
Inference
This question relies on what the passage suggests about the difference between the hard-sell and soft-sell approaches—and why the hard-sell approach might be preferred. The hard-sell approach, according to the second paragraph, presents explicit conclusions. The soft-sell approach, on the other hand, does not explicitly state conclusions about products; instead, consumers make up their own minds.
A. While the passage makes clear that boomerang effects are minimized when conclusions are left unstated, this is an advantage of the soft-sell approach over the hard-sell approach.
B. According to the second paragraph, counterargumentation is a disadvantage, not an advantage, of the hard-sell approach. This is a reason not to prefer the hard sell.
C. The third paragraph suggests that in cases in which consumers may perceive themselves as more knowledgeable than individuals presenting product
claims, the soft-sell approach offers an advantage over the hard-sell approach.
D. According to the third paragraph, self-generated conclusions that are associated with the soft-sell approach have a greater impact on decision making than explicit conclusions. The passage does not allude to any research on memory that would favor the hard-sell approach.
E. Correct. The fourth paragraph suggests that one problem with the soft-sell approach is that consumers could miss the point; they may not come to the conclusions that the advertiser would prefer. Thus an advertiser might prefer a hard-sell approach.

Q2). Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the hardsell approach EXCEPT:
A. Its overall message is readily grasped.
B. It appeals to consumers’ knowledge about the product.
C. It makes explicit claims that the advertised brand is superior to other brands.
D. It uses statements that are expressed very clearly.
E. It makes claims in the form of direct conclusions.
Supporting idea
This question asks about what is directly stated in the passage about the hard-sell approach. The first and second paragraphs provide the details about this approach, including that it uses direct, forceful claims about benefits of a brand over competitors’ brands; its claims are simple and straightforward, in the form of explicit conclusions; and consumers are generally left with little room for confusion about the message.
A. The second paragraph states that there is little room for confusion about the message.
B. Correct. The extent of consumers’ knowledge about the product is not mentioned in the passage.
C. The first paragraph indicates that in the hard-sell approach advertisers make direct claims regarding the benefits of the advertised brand over other offerings.
D. The first and second paragraphs say that hard-sell claims are direct, simple, and straightforward.
E. The second paragraph emphasizes that the hard-sell approach presents it claims in the form of explicit conclusions.

Q3). It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide
B. information that implies the advertiser’s intended conclusion but leaves that conclusion unstated
C. subtle evidence that the advertised product is superior to that of competitors
D. information comparing the advertised product with its competitors
E. opportunity for consumers to generate their own beliefs or conclusions
Inference
This questionrequires understanding the risks discussed in the last paragraph of the passage. Those risks are, first, that consumers would not be motivated to think about the advertisement and thus would miss the message’s point; second, that consumers may draw conclusions that the advertiser did not intend; and finally, that consumers could question the validity of the conclusions they reach, even if those conclusions are what advertisers intend.
A. Correct. Providing motivation for consumers to think about an advertisement’s message would reduce the first risk discussed in the last paragraph: that consumers would fail to draw any conclusions because they would lack motivation to engage with advertisements.
B. Providing information that implies a conclusion but leaves it unstated is the very definition of the soft-sell approach, and it is this approach that gives rise to the risks discussed in the last paragraph.
C. Providing subtle evidence that a product is superior is most likely to give rise to all three of the risks identified in the last paragraph, in that its subtlety would leave consumers free to draw their own conclusions, to fail to draw those conclusions, or to question the validity of their own conclusions.
D. A direct comparison of the advertised product with its competitors would run all the risks identified in the last paragraph: consumers might not find the comparison motivating; they could draw conclusions that the advertiser did not intend (e.g., that the competing products are superior); or they could question whatever conclusions they do draw.
E. Giving consumers the opportunity to generate their own beliefs or conclusions is an intrinsic part of the soft-sell approach, which produces the risks discussed in the last paragraph.

Q3). The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out the risks involved in the use of a particular advertising strategy
B. make a case for the superiority of one advertising strategy over another
C. illustrate the ways in which two advertising strategies may be implemented
E. contrast the types of target markets for which two advertising strategies are appropriate
Inference
Overall, the passage is concerned with two advertising strategies. The first paragraph introduces the strategies. The second paragraph explains how a particular aspect of one approach may be both positive and negative and how thesecond approach mitigates these problems. The third paragraph continues this discussion of mitigation, while the fourth paragraph points out that there are drawbacks to this approach, too. Thus, according to the passage, both strategies have positive and negative aspects.
A. The passage is concerned not with one particular advertising strategy but with two, and it discusses benefits, as well as risks, involved with both strategies.
B. The passage does not suggest that one strategy is superior to the other but rather that each has positive and negative aspects.
C. The passage does not discuss how to implement either of the strategies it is concerned with; instead, it deals with how consumers are likely to respond once the implementation has already taken place.
D. Correct. The passage is primarily concerned with showing that both of the strategies described have advantages and disadvantages.
E. The passage provides some indirect grounds for inferring the target markets for which each advertising strategy might be appropriate, but it is not primarily concerned with contrasting those markets.

Q4). Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 25–28 in the context of the passage as a whole?
A. It reiterates a distinction between two advertising strategies that is made in the first paragraph.
B. It explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph.
C. It suggests that a risk described earlier in the paragraph is less serious than some researchers believe it to be.
D. It outlines why the strategy described in the previous sentence involves certain risks for an advertiser.
E. It introduces an argument that will be refuted in the following paragraph.
Evaluation
The sentence in lines 25–28 explains how the kinds of conclusions consumers are invited to draw based on the soft-sell approach reduce the risk that consumers will respond with resentment, distrust, and counterargumentation—that is, the possible boomerang effect identified earlier in the paragraph as a drawback of the hard-sell approach.
A. The sentence does not reiterate the distinction between the hard- and softsoftsell approaches; rather, it explains an advantage of the soft-sell approach.
B. Correct. The sentence explains how the soft-sell approach avoids the problems that can arise from the hard-sell approach’s explicitly stated conclusions.
C. The sentence suggests that the risk of boomerang effects described earlier in the paragraph is serious but that a different approach can mitigate it.
D. The sentence outlines why the strategy described in the previous sentence reduces advertisers’ risks, not why it involves risks.
E. At no point does the passage refute the idea that implicit conclusions reduce the risk of boomerang effects. It does say that there could be drawbacks to the soft-sell approach, but those drawbacks are related to the problem with implicit conclusions themselves and how people reach them. In addition, the following paragraph does not mention the drawbacks, only the advantages of implicit conclusions.

Q5). It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers
A. have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message
B. have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory
C. are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belong
D. are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s message
E. come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion
Inference
The passage discusses the boomerang effect in the second paragraph. This effect is defined as consumers deriving conclusions from advertising that are the opposite of those that advertisers intended to present, and it occurs when consumers resent and/or distrust what they are being told.
A. The passage provides no grounds for inferring that consumers need to be exposed to opposing claims in order to believe such claims; they may reach opposing claims on their own.
B. The passage indicates that the boomerang effect can be reduced by using a soft-sell approach, which can result in self-generated conclusionsbut it provides no evidence about any possible effects of preexisting self-generated beliefs or conclusions on the boomerang effect.
C. The passage does not address how consumers who are subjected to advertising messages not intended for them might respond.
D. Confusion regarding the point of the advertiser’s message is more likely to occur, the passage suggests, when advertisers use a soft-sell approach—but it is the hard-sell approach, not the soft-sell, that is likely to result in the boomerang effect.
E. Correct. The second paragraph indicates that consumers who resent being told what to believe and come to distrust the advertiser’s message—that is, those who view the message with suspicion—may experience a boomerang effect, believing the opposite of the conclusions offered.

Q6). It can be inferred from the passage that the research mentioned in line 29 supports which of the following statements?
A. Implicit conclusions are more likely to capture accurately the point of the advertiser’s message than are explicit conclusions.
B. Counterargumentation is less likely to occur if an individual’s beliefs or conclusions are readily accessible from memory.
C. The hard-sell approach results in conclusions that are more difficult for the consumer to recall than are conclusions resulting from the soft-sell approach.
D. When the beliefs of others are presented as definite and forceful claims, they are perceived to be as accurate as self-generated beliefs.
E. Despite the advantages of implicit conclusions, the hard-sell approach involves fewer risks for the advertiser than does the soft-sell approach.
Inference
The research this item refers to—research on consumer memory and judgment— indicates that beliefs are more memorable when they are self-generated and so matter when making judgments and decisions. Further, self-generated beliefs seem more believable to those who have them than beliefs that come from elsewhere.
A. The fourth paragraph indicates that implicit conclusions are more likely tofail to replicate the advertiser’s message than explicit conclusions are.
B. The research discussed in the passage does not address when counterargumentation is more or less likely to occur. Even though counterargumentation is a risk when consumers distrust the advertiser’s message—as they may do when harder-to-recall explicit conclusions are given—it may be as much of a risk when consumers reach an implicit conclusion that is readily accessible from memory.
C. Correct. The research indicates that it is easier for consumers to recall conclusions they have reached on their own—that is, the sorts of conclusions that are encouraged by the soft-sell approach—than conclusions that have been provided explicitly, as happens in the hard-sell approach.
D. The research does not show that the forcefulness with which claims are presented increases perceptions of the accuracy of those claims. Indeed, it is most likely the opposite, as the forcefulness of others’ claims may make them seem even less related to any conclusions the consumer might generate for him- or herself.
E. The research suggests that it is the soft-sell, not the hard-sell, approach that has fewer risks. The fourth paragraph indicates that there could be some risks to the implicit conclusions that consumers draw, but this is not part of the research in question.
Re: A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a “hard-sel   [#permalink] 05 Dec 2019, 03:37
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