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A known cause for the failure of barley crops

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A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods.


A) aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barely has survived better after seasonal floods

B) soil aeration, particularly the seedlings' root zone, but barley is surviving the seasonal floods better, after new strains were introduced, which are more resistant to waterlogging

C) aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods

D) soil aeration and in particular that of the seedlings' root zone, but barley are surviving better after seasonal floods, since the introduction of new strains which are more resistant to waterlogging

E) aeration of the soil, but since the introduction of new waterlogging-resistant strains and in particular of the seedlings' root zone, barley crops are better surviving seasonal floods

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Originally posted by reto on 08 May 2015, 12:21.
Last edited by generis on 22 Mar 2019, 09:31, edited 1 time in total.
Edited and formatted the question
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2015, 12:47
reto wrote:
A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods.



aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barely has survived better after seasonal floods
in particular of - would make this choice correct

soil aeration, particularly the seedlings' root zone, but barley is surviving the seasonal floods better, after new strains were introduced, which are more resistant to waterlogging
tense error
which refers to verb - which is incorrect

aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods
that of - what does it refer to?
I believe that is not really needed here, but it might as well correctly refer to aeration - still
everything else is good!


soil aeration and in particular that of the seedlings' root zone, but barley are surviving better after seasonal floods, since the introduction of new strains which are more resistant to waterlogging
parallelism error
are surviving - tense error
which should be separated from the noun it refers by a comma

aeration of the soil, but since the introduction of new waterlogging-resistant strains and in particular of the seedlings' root zone, barley crops are better surviving seasonal floods
this choice has multiple errors
waterlogging-resistant is not the same as more resitant to waterlogging
aind in particular of the... - i dont even know to what it refers
are better surviving - we have "since" marker - we need present perfect.

while C has a suspicious "that", it is the best answer.

I chose E from the start (maybe being under time pressure while at work affected my thinking :) )
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2015, 13:29
are you sure answer is C.

Because question says " A known cause for the failure of barley crops is <.........> and <.....>.

I guess verb should be are instead of is, or we should not have " and "

Please clarify
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2015, 13:48
"A known cause..." refers to a singular subject - does that help? Yes its definately C.
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2015, 13:57
reto wrote:
"A known cause..." refers to a singular subject - does that help? Yes its definately C.


I know A known cause refers to singular subject and verb "is" as well.

but after that sentence shows two things <first> and <second>, it should show only one reason not two.

for eaxample.

reason I left job is salary ....this looks correct

reason I left job is salary and role ....this looks little vague.

correct me if I am wrong.

thanks
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2015, 14:08
Well it describes one reason "aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone..." which is diffrent to e.g. "aeration of the soil and bad weather" which would be plural i guess, however im not native. You understand what i mean?
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2015, 10:03
I guess intended meaning of sentence is ... aeration of soil and in particular that XYZ particulat zone .... so C is correct
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2016, 09:09
mvictor wrote:
reto wrote:
A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods.



aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barely has survived better after seasonal floods
in particular of - would make this choice correct

soil aeration, particularly the seedlings' root zone, but barley is surviving the seasonal floods better, after new strains were introduced, which are more resistant to waterlogging
tense error
which refers to verb - which is incorrect

aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods
that of - what does it refer to?
I believe that is not really needed here, but it might as well correctly refer to aeration - still
everything else is good!


soil aeration and in particular that of the seedlings' root zone, but barley are surviving better after seasonal floods, since the introduction of new strains which are more resistant to waterlogging
parallelism error
are surviving - tense error
which should be separated from the noun it refers by a comma

aeration of the soil, but since the introduction of new waterlogging-resistant strains and in particular of the seedlings' root zone, barley crops are better surviving seasonal floods
this choice has multiple errors
waterlogging-resistant is not the same as more resitant to waterlogging
aind in particular of the... - i dont even know to what it refers
are better surviving - we have "since" marker - we need present perfect.

while C has a suspicious "that", it is the best answer.

I chose E from the start (maybe being under time pressure while at work affected my thinking :) )


Hi,

does "in Particular" must always be followed by "of"
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2016, 10:15
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smartguy595 wrote:
mvictor wrote:
reto wrote:
A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods.



aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barely has survived better after seasonal floods
in particular of - would make this choice correct

soil aeration, particularly the seedlings' root zone, but barley is surviving the seasonal floods better, after new strains were introduced, which are more resistant to waterlogging
tense error
which refers to verb - which is incorrect

aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods
that of - what does it refer to?
I believe that is not really needed here, but it might as well correctly refer to aeration - still
everything else is good!


soil aeration and in particular that of the seedlings' root zone, but barley are surviving better after seasonal floods, since the introduction of new strains which are more resistant to waterlogging
parallelism error
are surviving - tense error
which should be separated from the noun it refers by a comma

aeration of the soil, but since the introduction of new waterlogging-resistant strains and in particular of the seedlings' root zone, barley crops are better surviving seasonal floods
this choice has multiple errors
waterlogging-resistant is not the same as more resitant to waterlogging
aind in particular of the... - i dont even know to what it refers
are better surviving - we have "since" marker - we need present perfect.

while C has a suspicious "that", it is the best answer.

I chose E from the start (maybe being under time pressure while at work affected my thinking :) )


Hi,

does "in Particular" must always be followed by "of"


No, "in particular" need not always be followed by "of". Option A requires "of" after "in particular" in order to maintain parallelism between "OF the soil" and "OF the seedlings' root zone".

Correct: I like meat, in particular chicken...... (there is no "of" after "in particular")
Correct: I like the taste of meat, in particular of chicken. ( "of" is required after "in particular" to maintain parallelism between "OF meat" and "OF chicken")
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 03:05
A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods.



aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barely has survived better after seasonal floods
--> lack of that of

soil aeration, particularly the seedlings' root zone, but barley is surviving the seasonal floods better, after new strains were introduced, which are more resistant to waterlogging

aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods

soil aeration and in particular that of the seedlings' root zone, but barley are surviving better after seasonal floods, since the introduction of new strains which are more resistant to waterlogging

aeration of the soil, but since the introduction of new waterlogging-resistant strains and in particular of the seedlings' root zone, barley crops are better surviving seasonal floods
--> lack of that of
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2017, 05:31
A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods.



aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barely has survived better after seasonal floods "that of" is missing

soil aeration, particularly the seedlings' root zone, but barley is surviving the seasonal floods better, after new strains were introduced, which are more resistant to waterlogging that of is missing, aeration of the soil is needed

aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods correct

soil aeration and in particular that of the seedlings' root zone, but barley are surviving better after seasonal floods, since the introduction of new strains which are more resistant to waterlogging aeration of soil is needed

aeration of the soil, but since the introduction of new waterlogging-resistant strains and in particular of the seedlings' root zone, barley crops are better surviving seasonal floods misplaced modifier
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2017, 20:02
B and D can be rejected on the ground of tense error. Present continuous tense does make sense here. And D has SV agreement error.E distorts the meaning of Sentence.

Between A and C, C is the best choice as it maintains parallelism.
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2018, 18:18
Could anyone please explain to me what *that of* is referring to in option C?

Thank You!
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2019, 22:12
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JS1290 wrote:
Could anyone please explain to me what *that of* is referring to in option C?

Thank You!


Option C:
Subject - Verb
A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of
    1) the soil and
    2) particularly that of the seedlings' root zone
,but
    since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging,
barley has survived better after seasonal floods.

When you read in terms of respective clauses of the sentence structure, you will release that the usage of 'that' maps to poor aeration of the seedlings' root zone.
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A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2019, 16:50
Xylan , nicely analyzed. +1

JS1290 , "that of" in option C refers to aeration of soil [of→ the seedlings' root zone]
that makes a new copy of aeration (of soil)). That is a pronoun in this case.
The word of (in green) refers to the seedlings' root zone (the prepositional object attached to OF)

The prompt.
reto wrote:
A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods.

The options.
Quote:
A) aeration of the soil and in particular [aeration of the soil of] the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barely has survived better after seasonal floods

• A parallelism error exists that might be hard to catch until we get to option (C).
-- Barley crops fail because of
(1) poor aeration of the soil generally (the whole field) in which barley is planted, and
(2) poor aeration of the soil [in particular] OF the barley seedlings' root zone.
• Compare to option (C), in which the pronoun that makes a "new and different copy" of aeration
-- If we do not use that or do not repeat aeration of the soil, then
we incorrectly have an AND joining two phrases that are not parallel.
A known source of crop failure is
poor aeration of the soil
and
the seedlings' root zone
The seedlings' root zone is not a cause of barley crop failure.
Poor aeration of the soil of the seedlings' root zone causes barley crop failure.

Quote:
B) soil aeration, particularly [that of] the seedlings' root zone, but barley is surviving the seasonal floods better, after new strains were introduced, which are more resistant to waterlogging

• The same parallelism error as that in (A) exists, but in (B) the error is easier to see. A root zone is not soil aeration
• the placement of after new strains were introduced is logically clumsy at best and grammatically incorrect at worst
-- Logical causation is not nearly as clear as causation in (C)
-- the which probably cannot "reach" its noun, new strains. which looks as if it modifies were introduced
which can refer to a noun or noun phrase; cannot modify a verb; cannot modify a whole previous clause; and
cannot often "jump over" a verb phrase.
• verbs: (C) is better. If since introduces an event in the past whose effects remain, the verb in the main or following clause should be in present perfect.
-- in (C), the verb that follows the since phrase is appropriately in present perfect, i.e. has survived.
-- in (B), after and present continuous is surviving are not as clear as the causal language in (C)

Quote:
C) aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods

-- aeration is parallel with that [= new copy of aeration]
-- of the soil is parallel with of the seedlings' root zone
-- has survived correctly conveys an event in the past ("since ABC") whose causal effects (survival) are ongoing.

Quote:
D) soil aeration and in particular that of the seedlings' root zone, but barley are surviving better after seasonal floods, since the introduction of new strains which are more resistant to waterlogging

• S/V disagreement. Barley is singular. The verb should be is
• Same verb problem as that in (B). Since introduces an event in the past with ongoing effects.
Use has survived rather than is surviving.
which should be set off by commas or should be the word that.
Quote:
E) aeration of the soil, but sincethe introduction of new waterlogging-resistant strains and in particular of the seedlings' root zone, barley crops are better surviving seasonal floods

• same verb problem as that in B and D; the word since should be paired with present perfect
the seedlings' root zone was not introduced: [since the introduction of] new strains AND [of] the seedlings' root zone. :problem:
The phrasing creates logical nonsense
• improper placement: Coordinating conjunctions such as AND must join two equals—words, phrases, clauses, etc.
-- The phrases joined by AND —new strains and seedlings' root zone— have nothing to do with one another.
-- the seedlings' root zone should be associated with aeration of the soil.

The correct answer is C
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2019, 01:28
A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods.

C) aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods

It says "A known cause for the failure of barley crops is ...." should it not refer to just one thing? In C it seems to referring to two things aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2019, 02:49
rnn wrote:
A known cause for the failure of barley crops is poor aeration of the soil and in particular the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods.

C) aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone, but since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging, barley has survived better after seasonal floods

It says "A known cause for the failure of barley crops is ...." should it not refer to just one thing? In C it seems to referring to two things aeration of the soil and particularly that of the seedlings' root zone


A known cause does refer to a single entity ,i.e., poor aeration.
    It is just that the poor aeration affects two areas:
      1) the soil
      2) the seedlings' root zone
The above two areas are the prepositional object attached to OF.

Your query would have been correct, had the option be:
    Subject-Verb
    The known causes for the failure of barley crops are poor aerations of
      1) the soil and
      2) particularly those of the seedlings' root zone
    ,but
      since the introduction of new strains, which are more resistant to waterlogging,
    barley has survived better after seasonal floods.
    Notice: How those is replacing that to map to poor aerations in the above modified-option.

The source of confusion:
    The Subject and Verb should be in agreement.
    The object does NOT affect this behavior irrespective of whether the sentence is written in ACTIVE or PASSIVE.
    We are mapping a known cause --------> poor aeration.

Look at another sentence with plural object:
    Subject-Verb
    Heightened by the T-virus, Wolverine captures the assassins (plural obejct) of Magneto and those of Striker.
- I know , I made that up. ;)
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Re: A known cause for the failure of barley crops   [#permalink] 23 Mar 2019, 02:49
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