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A major tenet of the neurosciences has been that all neurons (nerve ce

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Re: A major tenet of the neurosciences has been that all neurons (nerve ce  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2019, 22:13
nitya34 wrote:
I tried too.Will post the OAs in few Hrs if no takers :)
1.D
2.D
3.B(Humans dont fly)?
4.Typical Weaken CR Q---C?
5.C
6.D(Not so easy)
7.C
8.C(Is incomplete too strong?or B?progressive-still in the process)

nitya34 wrote:
==========
Although the idea of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain is still not generally accepted, these findings might help uncover a mechanism that would enable the human brain to repair itself through neurogenesis. Whether such replacement of neurons would disrupt complex learning processes or long-term memory is not known, but songbird research challenges scientists to identify the genes or hormones that orchestrate neurogenesis in the young human brain and to learn how to activate them in the adult brain.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) New evidence of neurogenesis in canaries challenges an established neurological theory concerning brain cells in vertebrates and suggests the possibility that human brains may repair themselves.
(B) The brains of canaries differ from the brains of other vertebrate animals in that the brains of adult canaries are able to generate neurons.
(C) Recent studies of neurogenesis in canaries, building on established theories of vertebrate neurology, provide important clues as to why researchers are not likely to discover neurogenesis in adult humans.
(D) Recent research into neurogenesis in canaries refutes a long-held belief about the limited supply of brain cells and provides new information about neurogenesis in the adult human brain.
(E) New information about neurogenesis in canaries challenges older hypotheses and clarifies the importance of the yearly cycle in learning processes and neurological replacement among vertebrates.

2. According to the passage, which one of the following is true of the typical adult canary during the late summer and fall?
(A) The canary’s song repertoire takes on a fully structured and stable quality.
(B) A process of neurogenesis replaces the song-learning neurons that were lost during the preceding months.
(C) The canary begins to learn an entirely new repertoire of songs based on the models of other canaries.
(D) The regions in the canary’s brain that are central to the learning of song decrease in size.
(E) The canary performs slightly modified versions of the songs it learned during the preceding breeding season.

3. Information in the passage suggests that the author would most likely regard which one of the following as LEAST important in future research on neurogenesis in humans?
(A) research on possible similarities between the neurological structures of humans and canaries
(B) studies that compare the ratio of brain weight to body weight in canaries to that in humans
(C) neurological research on the genes or hormones that activate neurogenesis in the brain of human infants
(D) studies about the ways in which long-term memory functions in the human brain
(E) research concerning the processes by which humans learn complicated tasks

4. Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously undermine the explanation proposed by the author in the third paragraph?
(A) A number of songbird species related to the canary have a shorter life span than the canary and do not experience neurogenesis.
(B) The brain size of several types of airborne birds with life spans similar to those of canaries has been shown to vary according to a two-year cycle of neurogenesis.
(C) Several species of airborne birds similar to canaries in size are known to have brains that are substantially heavier than the canary’s brain.
(D) Individual canaries that have larger-than-average repertoires of songs tend to have better developed muscles for flying.
(E) Individual canaries with smaller and lighter brains than the average tend to retain a smaller-than-average repertoire of songs.

5. The use of the word “vocabulary” (line 23) serves primarily to
(A) demonstrate the presence of a rudimentary grammatical structure in canary song
(B) point out a similarity between the patterned groupings of sounds in a canary’s song and the syllabic structures of words
(C) stress the stability and uniformity of canary’s song throughout its lifetime
(D) suggest a similarity between the possession of a repertoire of words among humans and a repertoire of songs among canaries
(E) imply that the complexity of the canary’s song repertoire is equal to that of human language

6. According to the passage, which one of the following factors may help account for the occurrence of neurogenesis in canaries?
(A) the life span of the average canary
(B) the process by which canaries learn songs
(C) the frequency of canary breeding seasons
(D) the number of regions in the canary brain related to song learning
(E) the amount of time an average canary needs to learn a repertoire of songs

7. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the third paragraph?
(A) A theory is presented, analyzed, and modified, and a justification for the modification is offer.
(B) Research results are advanced and reconciled with results from other studies, and a shared principle is described.
(C) Research results are presented, further details are provided, and a hypothesis is offered to explain the results.
(D) Research results are reported, their implications are explained, and an application to a related field is proposed.
(E) Research results are reported, their significance is clarified, and they are reconciled with previously established neurological tenets.

8. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would most likely describe the current understanding of neurogenesis as
(A) exhaustive
(B) progressive
(C) incomplete
(D) antiquated
(E) incorrect
============


Can you please tell me how did you eliminate option E in the 3rd question.
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Re: A major tenet of the neurosciences has been that all neurons (nerve ce  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2019, 05:03
3. Information in the passage suggests that the author would most likely regard which one of the following as LEAST important in future research on neurogenesis in humans?
Relevant text: Whether such replacement of neurons would disrupt complex learning processes or long-term memory is not known, but songbird research challenges scientists to identify the genes or hormones that orchestrate neurogenesis in the young human brain and to learn how to activate them in the adult brain.
(A) research on possible similarities between the neurological structures of humans and canaries if neurological structures of humans were not similar to that of canaries, then conclusions drawn from the findings from canary research would less likely be applicable to the study of human brain neurogenesis - stays in
(B) studies that compare the ratio of brain weight to body weight in canaries to that in humans correct: both are vertebrate, but mammals are different from birds, so such research would unlikely be helpful
(C) neurological research on the genes or hormones that activate neurogenesis in the brain of human infants stays in
(D) studies about the ways in which long-term memory functions in the human brain stays in
(E) research concerning the processes by which humans learn complicated tasks stays in

4. Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously undermine the explanation proposed by the author in the third paragraph?
Relevant text: A possible explanation for this continual replacement of nerve cells may have to do with the canary’s relatively long life span and the requirements of flight. Its brain would have to be substantially larger and heavier than might be feasible for flying <...>
(A) A number of songbird species related to the canary have a shorter life span than the canary and do not experience neurogenesis. falls out of the scope of research
(B) The brain size of several types of airborne birds with life spans similar to those of canaries has been shown to vary according to a two-year cycle of neurogenesis. goes in line with the research
(C) Several species of airborne birds similar to canaries in size are known to have brains that are substantially heavier than the canary’s brain. correct
(D) Individual canaries that have larger-than-average repertoires of songs tend to have better developed muscles for flying. got myself in trouble with this one: I assumed that larger-than-average repertoires of song translates into heavier brain (more information = more brain cells, a trend that matches the seasonality) and that having better developed muscles countered the idea that the canary would not be able to fly; so this would seem to weaken that larger brains account for the neurogenesis as such a problem seemingly can be overcome; nevertheless, COULD ANYBODY PLEASE POINT OUT THE EXACT RESEAN WHY D IS WRONG?
(E) Individual canaries with smaller and lighter brains than the average tend to retain a smaller-than-average repertoire of songs. seems to go in line with the research: less in information -> less brain cells -> smaller brains

6. According to the passage [ detail question type, and not a strengthen type ], which one of the following factors may help account for the occurrence of neurogenesis in canaries?
Relevant text: A possible explanation for this continual replacement of nerve cells may have to do with the canary’s relatively long life span and the requirements of flight [ two things ].
(A) the life span of the average canary correct
(B) the process by which canaries learn songs "Recent neurological research into this learning and relearning process has shown that the two most important regions of the canary’s brain related to the learning of songs actually vary in size <...>" - the process helped to spot the finding but not in itself helps to explain the neurogenesis
(C) the frequency of canary breeding seasons
(D) the number of regions in the canary brain related to song learning
(E) the amount of time an average canary needs to learn a repertoire of songs

Could anyone please comment on option D in Q4? I have given my reasoning above.

Thank you

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Re: A major tenet of the neurosciences has been that all neurons (nerve ce  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2019, 10:44
4. (C)
If it were true that birds similar to the canary have bigger brains, the author’s explanation
for canary neurogenesis would be placed in jeopardy. In ¶3, after all, he argues that canary
neurogenesis occurs because the canary needs to possess a lot of information in order to
sing, yet has a small brain adapted for flight. Hence its brain, with its limited storage
capacity, has to generate new nerve cells every year in order for it to relearn how to sing.
(E) is consistent with the author’s explanation, which suggests that singing ability is
directly related to brain size.
============



Is this not out of scope as we are not talking about canary?
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Re: A major tenet of the neurosciences has been that all neurons (nerve ce  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2019, 00:22
Please explain question 5 and 6

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Re: A major tenet of the neurosciences has been that all neurons (nerve ce  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2019, 13:03
jawele wrote:
4. Which one of the following, if true, would most seriously undermine the explanation proposed by the author in the third paragraph?

(D) Individual canaries that have larger-than-average repertoires of songs tend to have better developed muscles for flying. got myself in trouble with this one: I assumed that larger-than-average repertoires of song translates into heavier brain (more information = more brain cells, a trend that matches the seasonality) and that having better developed muscles countered the idea that the canary would not be able to fly; so this would seem to weaken that larger brains account for the neurogenesis as such a problem seemingly can be overcome; nevertheless, COULD ANYBODY PLEASE POINT OUT THE EXACT RESEAN WHY D IS WRONG?

Could anyone please comment on option D in Q4? I have given my reasoning above.

Thank you

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In the third paragraph, the author proposes that "possible explanation for this continual replacement of nerve cells may have to do with the canary’s relatively long life span and the requirements of flight."

His/her reasoning behind this explanation is that the canary's brain "would have to be substantially larger and heavier than might be feasible for flying if it had to carry all the brain cells needed to process and retain all the information gathered over a lifetime."

Now take another look at (D):
Quote:
(D) Individual canaries that have larger-than-average repertoires of songs tend to have better developed muscles for flying.

You are correct to point out that more songs could lead to a bigger brain, which is supported by the fact that the big brained birds also have better developed muscles. However, does this undermine the author's proposed explanation?

He/she argued that a canary couldn't carry around "all the information gathered over a lifetime." (D) does not specify that canaries with "larger-than-average repertoires of songs" actually remember all of the songs they ever learned -- they just remember more songs than average. The fact that remembering more songs leads to a bigger brain actually supports the author's explanation, because it adds more evidence to the connection between brain size and the amount of information in the canary's brain.

Because (D) doesn't show that canaries can compensate for a brain holding "all the information gathered over a lifetime" by developing muscle, it does not undermine the author's explanation.

I hope that helps!

(And interesting that this LSAT passage is about neurogenesis in canaries, and so is this GMAT SC question. Seems like somebody is borrowing ideas from other exams... :-o)
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Re: A major tenet of the neurosciences has been that all neurons (nerve ce   [#permalink] 27 Jun 2019, 13:03

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