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A more comprehensive definition of "sea level,"

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Is the question well formatted,or can it be improved.

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A more comprehensive definition of "sea level,"  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2018, 22:54
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A more comprehensive definition of "sea level," one useful to cartographers, requires a broad understanding of various temporal and physical factors. First, consider the history of sea level: the position at which sea and land meet, averaged over tidal stages and coastlines, has been remarkably stable over time. Current sea level measures, though having risen very slightly over the last century, are approximately the same as they were 35,000 years ago. Thus, the referent for terrestrial altitudes and oceanic depths has been largely consistent for millennia, though cartographers' ability to make accurate measurements has, of course, improved with advances in technology. Through the processes of imaginative visualization and computer generation, much knowledge has been gained regarding the predictable nature of sea level.

The oceans are governed primarily by Earth's gravity, which is strongest at the poles because of Earth's slightly ellipsoid shape, the result of billions of years of rotation. What keeps the oceans from pooling at the poles, drawn there by the greater gravitational forces, is the centrifugal force generated by Earth's rotation. This force is strong enough to cause a bulge of ocean about eight kilometers high around Earth's equator. Using sophisticated computer models, today's cartographers can postulate how the intersection of sea and land would change should the Earth ever cease to rotate on its axis. Over time, the bulge of ocean at the equator, no longer held in place by the centrifugal forces, would flatten out. Drawn by the pull of the two poles, Earth's main bodies of water would eventually become circumpolar, gathered in two massive pools around the top and bottom, so to speak, of the globe, leading to the emergence of a supercontinent around the planet's equator.

1.According to the passage, which is true of the physical forces governing sea level?
A.Gravity, along with rotation, is responsible for Earth's slightly ellipsoid shape.
B.Centrifugal deterioration will eventually give rise to an enormous supercontinent.
C.The centrifugal force is the dominant influence on the shape of Earth's oceans.
D.The equatorial bulge is primarily a result of gravitational pooling at Earth's poles.
E.Gravitational forces have more influence on the oceans than does centrifugal force.


2.The author makes all of the following statements about historic sea levels EXCEPT
A.Variations in them have been noted in the last 35,000 years.
B.Their consistency has allowed cartographers to improve their measurements.
C.While mutable, they have, broadly speaking, maintained stability for millennia.
D.They are measured at many times and places to obtain a useful average.
E.Measurements of depth and elevation are made relative to their height.


3.The passage is chiefly concerned with
A.imparting an understanding of the effect of Earth's physical forces on sea life
B.arguing that the long-term stability of sea level assists in cartographic accuracy
C.attempting to compose an explanation of one of Earth's topographical variables
D.integrating hard data and thought experimentation to better visualize sea level
E.positing a worst-case scenario to educate readers about Earth's fragile balance


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A more comprehensive definition of "sea level,"  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2018, 23:21
This question is very well formatted. Thank you for your efforts and if you have official explanations, post them here.
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Re: A more comprehensive definition of "sea level,"  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2018, 23:30
workout wrote:
This question is very well formatted. Thank you for your efforts and if you have official explanations, let me know, I will post them here.

Reserved for OE.


I tired my best to format it right the first time. :-)
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Re: A more comprehensive definition of "sea level,"  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2018, 23:31
1

Official Explanation 1


Choice (A) distorts the details. Only the Earth's rotation is credited with this effect. The passage states that increased polar gravitational forces are a result, not a cause, of Earth's ellipsoid shape.

Choice (B) is also a distortion. There is nothing in the passage that states that this scenario will happen, only that it would if the Earth were to stop rotating.

Choice (C) is a 180. It may be tempting because centrifugal force clearly has a powerful effect, but the passage explicitly states that gravity's effect is "greater" and "primary."

Choice (D) is also a 180. The equatorial bulge is a result of centrifugal forces created by Earth's rotation.

Choice (E) matches the prediction and is correct. The first two sentences of the second paragraph say that the gravitational forces are "greater" and that the oceans are "governed primarily by Earth's gravity."
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Re: A more comprehensive definition of "sea level,"  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2018, 23:33

Official Explanation 2:



Choice (A) is mentioned in the passage and may be tempting, but the prediction was not so extreme as to claim that no variation at all was possible, and choice (A) does not say that major variation has been noted. Indeed, the passage states that sea levels have been "rising ... over the last century," which is clearly a "variation."

Choice (B) is a distortion and, therefore, is correct. The passage credits improvements in cartography to advancing technology, not to stable sea levels.

Choice (C) is mentioned in the passage, which explicitly states that sea levels "are approximately what they were 35,000 years ago," though they have changed slightly.

Choice (D) is mentioned; the passage states that measuring sea level involves "averag[ing] over tidal stages and coastlines." Clearly, sea levels are measured in multiple times and places to get an accurate assessment.

Choice (E) is also mentioned; the passage states that they are "the referent for terrestrial altitudes and oceanic depths," an idea that this answer choice almost exactly restates.
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Re: A more comprehensive definition of "sea level,"  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2018, 23:34

Official Explanation3:


Choice (A) is out of scope. The author describes Earth's forces in regard to their effect on sea level, not sea life.

Choice (B) distorts both the author's purpose and scope. The passage does not argue for anything but is descriptive in tone. Also, the long-term stability of sea level is merely the focus of the first paragraph, not of the entire passage.

Choice (C), although wordy, matches the prediction and is correct. "Composing an explanation" of sea level correctly reflects the purpose of the passage.

Choice (D) is also too narrow, distorting the importance of the last sentence of the first paragraph. Visualization is used only as part of the discussion of sea level's stability over time, which is itself the focus in only one paragraph.

Choice (E) distorts the purpose of the thought experiment at the end of the second paragraph. It illustrates the importance of one physical factor affecting sea level but is not the passage's main point.
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Re: A more comprehensive definition of "sea level,"  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2018, 09:34
Regarding- Official Explanation 1

Doesn't the question concern about the sea level and not the oceans. Option D would have been correct if the question was about the ocean.

Kindly clear my doubt.
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Re: A more comprehensive definition of "sea level,"  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2018, 12:46
Good Rc..hope to find some more rc's of this level
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Re: A more comprehensive definition of "sea level," &nbs [#permalink] 30 Jul 2018, 12:46
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