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A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of

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A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2008, 06:55
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A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted pedestrians right-of-way.

A. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted

B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, granting

C. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted

D. regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted

E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2008, 12:09
Hi,

I would go for E.

Its parallel.

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2008, 14:10
Another E for structural and logical parallel.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2012, 10:21
I fell for C, but after having a look at
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/sc- ... t7988.html

I realized my mistakes. What the above link says is:

1. 'it gratned' is not in parallel with the rest of the sentence.
2. "Required X do Y" is correct but not "Required X that they do Y"
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2014, 11:50
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E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and
granted

What I can understand is "A New York City ordinance " did the following three things
1) mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour
2) required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times
3) and granted pedestrians right-of-way.

There by regulating the use of bicycles.

I was looking for a option as below:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way, regulating the use of bicycles.

or

Regulating the use of bicycles,A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way

So the verb-ing modifier modifies the whole clause.

But with option E) regulating being a verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun or noun entity which is "A New York City ordinance of 1897". I was actually looking for a comma separating the modifier from the subject.

Can somebody please clarify the doubt. Somehow I am not comfortable with the sentence structure (I have to, the official answer is E)
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2014, 12:11
Option E.
NY City mandating the use of bicycles,regulated...,retired...and granted...
follows parallelism.

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2014, 09:39
A New York City ordinance of 1897 ...

E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and
granted

Why is a comma required before "regulating?" Without a comma, regulating naturally refers to the previous noun, i.e. to ordinance.
The absence of the comma assures the correct meaning: "the X ordinance (where X = that regulated the use of bicycles) mandated P, required Q, and granted R."
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2014, 13:41
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kinjiGC wrote:
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and
granted

What I can understand is "A New York City ordinance " did the following three things
1) mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour
2) required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times
3) and granted pedestrians right-of-way.

There by regulating the use of bicycles.

I was looking for a option as below:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way, regulating the use of bicycles.

or

Regulating the use of bicycles,A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way

So the verb-ing modifier modifies the whole clause.

But with option E) regulating being a verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun or noun entity which is "A New York City ordinance of 1897". I was actually looking for a comma separating the modifier from the subject.

Can somebody please clarify the doubt. Somehow I am not comfortable with the sentence structure (I have to, the official answer is E)


Dear Kinjal,

Thank you for posting your question here.

Here is the sentence structure of the correct version of this sentence:

• A New York City ordinance of 1897 (subject)
regulating the use of bicycles (verb-ing modifier that gives additional information about the ordinance)
mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, (mandated = verb 1)
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, (required = verb 2)
• and granted pedestrians right-of-way. (granted = verb 3)


Your understanding of the three parallel items on the list is perfectly fine. As you pointed out, "regulating" as a verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun, since there is no comma between the modifier and the noun. "Regulating" correctly modifies "ordinance" in option E. Remember that modifiers can 'jump over' other modifiers. Here, "requiring" can jump over "of 1897" to modify the preceding noun.

If I were to identify the main point of the sentence or to summarize the sentence, I would say that this sentence is about the ordinance. It tells us three things about the ordinance: it (1) mandated something, (2) required something and (3) granted something. Notice that the modifier beginning with "regulating" can be removed from the sentence without affecting the clause in any way. This is what modifiers about nouns do: they give you additional information about the noun.

You may wonder whether the status of "regulating" as a modifier can be identified by doing a meaning analysis of the original sentence. It can if you pay close attention to the intended meaning of the sentence. In the original incorrect version, "regulated" seems to be on par with the verbs "mandated," "required" and "granted". However, this is only a superficial parallel list. This can be identified by focusing on the meaning. "Regulated the use of bicycles" gives us the general information that the ordinance imposed some rules on the use of bicycles. The next three verbs actually give us three specific rules about the use of bicycles that were imposed by the ordinance. So, logically, these three items can't be on par with the general information about what the ordinance was about.

I hope this helps with your doubt!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2014, 10:22
Hi Shraddha,

Thank you for the very detailed analysis on this question.
I understand that as you said "In the original incorrect version, "regulated" seems to be on par with the verbs "mandated," "required" and "granted". However, this is only a superficial parallel list. "
However when attempting the question this thing did not strike me even one bit and I am sure a lot of other fellow students also might face the same issue.
Do you have any suggestions/tips for us to follow in questions like these.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2015, 01:24
many action presented by many form of verb. paralelism is tested

very hard.

check each meaning relation between two side by side verbs to see it is logic or not, eliminate right away

for example

granting can not modify the previous verb, wrong.

the basis thingking is meaning analysis.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 01:16
Thanks...
you just cleared my doubt on verb-ing /Verb-ed Modifiers ...



prasi55 wrote:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 ...

E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and
granted

Why is a comma required before "regulating?" Without a comma, regulating naturally refers to the previous noun, i.e. to ordinance.
The absence of the comma assures the correct meaning: "the X ordinance (where X = that regulated the use of bicycles) mandated P, required Q, and granted R."
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 01:20
This was an excellent explanation on Verb-ed / Verd-ing..

Thanks..
egmat wrote:
kinjiGC wrote:
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and
granted

What I can understand is "A New York City ordinance " did the following three things
1) mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour
2) required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times
3) and granted pedestrians right-of-way.

There by regulating the use of bicycles.

I was looking for a option as below:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way, regulating the use of bicycles.

or

Regulating the use of bicycles,A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way

So the verb-ing modifier modifies the whole clause.

But with option E) regulating being a verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun or noun entity which is "A New York City ordinance of 1897". I was actually looking for a comma separating the modifier from the subject.

Can somebody please clarify the doubt. Somehow I am not comfortable with the sentence structure (I have to, the official answer is E)


Dear Kinjal,

Thank you for posting your question here.

Here is the sentence structure of the correct version of this sentence:

• A New York City ordinance of 1897 (subject)
regulating the use of bicycles (verb-ing modifier that gives additional information about the ordinance)
mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, (mandated = verb 1)
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, (required = verb 2)
• and granted pedestrians right-of-way. (granted = verb 3)


Your understanding of the three parallel items on the list is perfectly fine. As you pointed out, "regulating" as a verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun, since there is no comma between the modifier and the noun. "Regulating" correctly modifies "ordinance" in option E. Remember that modifiers can 'jump over' other modifiers. Here, "requiring" can jump over "of 1897" to modify the preceding noun.

If I were to identify the main point of the sentence or to summarize the sentence, I would say that this sentence is about the ordinance. It tells us three things about the ordinance: it (1) mandated something, (2) required something and (3) granted something. Notice that the modifier beginning with "regulating" can be removed from the sentence without affecting the clause in any way. This is what modifiers about nouns do: they give you additional information about the noun.

You may wonder whether the status of "regulating" as a modifier can be identified by doing a meaning analysis of the original sentence. It can if you pay close attention to the intended meaning of the sentence. In the original incorrect version, "regulated" seems to be on par with the verbs "mandated," "required" and "granted". However, this is only a superficial parallel list. This can be identified by focusing on the meaning. "Regulated the use of bicycles" gives us the general information that the ordinance imposed some rules on the use of bicycles. The next three verbs actually give us three specific rules about the use of bicycles that were imposed by the ordinance. So, logically, these three items can't be on par with the general information about what the ordinance was about.

I hope this helps with your doubt!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2017, 04:18
This question is a subtle mixture of a Parallelism error and Meaning
We can start by asking two questions:
What was the purpose of the New York City Ordinance? To regulate the use of bicycles.
How did it regulate the use of bicycles? - mandated......., required......
The third question will be. " What did it achieve by doing this?It granted pedestrians right- of- way.
Hence the 3 items of the list are: regulated, mandated and granted
A. Mandated, required and it granted...usage of the pronoun ‘it’ before granted is unnecessary and creates a Parallelism error.-INCORRECT
B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, granting ... granting is not parallel to the other two items of the list and is not a verb form; this option changes the intended meaning of the sentence...the last item in a list should be preceded by the co-ordinating conjunction, "AND"- INCORRECT
C. mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists : Usage of the pronoun 'it' creates a parallelism error… INCORRECT
D. Mandating, requiring are not active verb forms.........AWKWARD STRUCTURE, VERBS MISSING, CHANGES the intended meaning of the sentence. INCORRECT
E. Correct Answer: The modifying phrase, regulating the use of bicycles correctly modifies the Noun, Ordinance............mandated, required and granted- Parallelism maIntained: all the three actions are in the Simple Past Tense, 'And' is correctly used before the last item of the list.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of   [#permalink] 22 Mar 2017, 04:18
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