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A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2016, 23:31
prabhakar09 wrote:
But shouldn't it be
1. was regulating
or 2. regulated.

being the whole thing happened in past.

Hi Prabhakar, participles (both present and past participles) don't have tense of their own. They derive their tense from the main verb. For example:

I see a crying bay.
- Present Participle crying; the sentence is in simple present tense (as indicated by the main verb see).

I see a crying bay.
- Present Participle crying; the sentence is in simple past tense (as indicated by the main verb saw).
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2016, 01:14
nakib77 wrote:
Q23:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted pedestrians right-of-way.
A. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, granting
C. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
D. regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted


Regulated vs regulating

Regulated is a verb, while regulating in a gerund.
In the context of this sentence ...

A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles is an independent clause on its own. It should have either been followed by a ';' or a connecting conjunction. Since none of this is there, we need to put a gerund, which essentially turns it into a modifier.

So A and B are out

C:

" mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted"

two errors :
correction could be: required that cyclists keep feet...
saying required cyclists that..... implies the regulation needs particular types of cyclists
Also using pronoun it breaks the parallelism

D is not parallel

E is the correct answer
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2016, 01:18
I have only one concern with e ,why bare form of verb is not been used with required,isnt last part of sentence is subjunctive

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2016, 13:10
vipulgoel wrote:
I have only one concern with e ,why bare form of verb is not been used with required,isnt last part of sentence is subjunctive

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No, it is not a subjunctive. The following structures are valid:

1. Required that + subjunctive (Required that cyclists keep...)
2. Required to (Required cyclists to keep)
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2016, 12:51
nakib77 wrote:
Q23:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted pedestrians right-of-way.

A. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, granting
ordinance regulated, mandated,required, granting --- we need AND for a list.
C. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
D. regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
not parallel. if all ING forms are parallel then AND should be used. complete messed up sentence.
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 01:16
Thanks...
you just cleared my doubt on verb-ing /Verb-ed Modifiers ...



prasi55 wrote:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 ...

E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and
granted

Why is a comma required before "regulating?" Without a comma, regulating naturally refers to the previous noun, i.e. to ordinance.
The absence of the comma assures the correct meaning: "the X ordinance (where X = that regulated the use of bicycles) mandated P, required Q, and granted R."
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 01:20
This was an excellent explanation on Verb-ed / Verd-ing..

Thanks..
egmat wrote:
kinjiGC wrote:
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and
granted

What I can understand is "A New York City ordinance " did the following three things
1) mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour
2) required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times
3) and granted pedestrians right-of-way.

There by regulating the use of bicycles.

I was looking for a option as below:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way, regulating the use of bicycles.

or

Regulating the use of bicycles,A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way

So the verb-ing modifier modifies the whole clause.

But with option E) regulating being a verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun or noun entity which is "A New York City ordinance of 1897". I was actually looking for a comma separating the modifier from the subject.

Can somebody please clarify the doubt. Somehow I am not comfortable with the sentence structure (I have to, the official answer is E)


Dear Kinjal,

Thank you for posting your question here.

Here is the sentence structure of the correct version of this sentence:

• A New York City ordinance of 1897 (subject)
regulating the use of bicycles (verb-ing modifier that gives additional information about the ordinance)
mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, (mandated = verb 1)
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, (required = verb 2)
• and granted pedestrians right-of-way. (granted = verb 3)


Your understanding of the three parallel items on the list is perfectly fine. As you pointed out, "regulating" as a verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun, since there is no comma between the modifier and the noun. "Regulating" correctly modifies "ordinance" in option E. Remember that modifiers can 'jump over' other modifiers. Here, "requiring" can jump over "of 1897" to modify the preceding noun.

If I were to identify the main point of the sentence or to summarize the sentence, I would say that this sentence is about the ordinance. It tells us three things about the ordinance: it (1) mandated something, (2) required something and (3) granted something. Notice that the modifier beginning with "regulating" can be removed from the sentence without affecting the clause in any way. This is what modifiers about nouns do: they give you additional information about the noun.

You may wonder whether the status of "regulating" as a modifier can be identified by doing a meaning analysis of the original sentence. It can if you pay close attention to the intended meaning of the sentence. In the original incorrect version, "regulated" seems to be on par with the verbs "mandated," "required" and "granted". However, this is only a superficial parallel list. This can be identified by focusing on the meaning. "Regulated the use of bicycles" gives us the general information that the ordinance imposed some rules on the use of bicycles. The next three verbs actually give us three specific rules about the use of bicycles that were imposed by the ordinance. So, logically, these three items can't be on par with the general information about what the ordinance was about.

I hope this helps with your doubt!

Regards,
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2017, 04:18
This question is a subtle mixture of a Parallelism error and Meaning
We can start by asking two questions:
What was the purpose of the New York City Ordinance? To regulate the use of bicycles.
How did it regulate the use of bicycles? - mandated......., required......
The third question will be. " What did it achieve by doing this?It granted pedestrians right- of- way.
Hence the 3 items of the list are: regulated, mandated and granted
A. Mandated, required and it granted...usage of the pronoun ‘it’ before granted is unnecessary and creates a Parallelism error.-INCORRECT
B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, granting ... granting is not parallel to the other two items of the list and is not a verb form; this option changes the intended meaning of the sentence...the last item in a list should be preceded by the co-ordinating conjunction, "AND"- INCORRECT
C. mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists : Usage of the pronoun 'it' creates a parallelism error… INCORRECT
D. Mandating, requiring are not active verb forms.........AWKWARD STRUCTURE, VERBS MISSING, CHANGES the intended meaning of the sentence. INCORRECT
E. Correct Answer: The modifying phrase, regulating the use of bicycles correctly modifies the Noun, Ordinance............mandated, required and granted- Parallelism maIntained: all the three actions are in the Simple Past Tense, 'And' is correctly used before the last item of the list.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2017, 02:15
A. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, granting
C. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
D. regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2017, 11:10
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2017, 19:20
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for the kind attention of Mike

Quote:
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted


I have a doubt to ask Mike. Normally we use a verb to denote the primary function and modifiers to describe the secondary functions or the results or impact of the primary function. In this correct choice E, on the contrary, the prime function of regulation is relegated to a modifier role while the details or description of the regulation is accorded the verb status. Also if I take it right, the granting the right - of way - is a separate function for the regulation of the use of bicycles, since the right - of - way is in reference not only to the use of bicycles but also to the use of all vehicles such as cars, trucks, scooters, buses and so on that ply on the road. Therefore, it is logical to expect the second verb in the list to parallel another verb that goes with the primary function and not with the modifiers.
Would the following be a better choice?
E. regulated the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour and requiring cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted

Of course, in the exam, one can take no other choice but E because, per se, E is the only structurally parallel choice in the topic. Also one has to agree with the OA because if is from GMAT Prep
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2017, 05:19
E.
Regulating is a present participle in this case.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2017, 07:50
Why is a comma between bicycles and mandated not required?

regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2017, 15:25
nakib77 wrote:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted pedestrians right-of-way.

(A) regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted

(B) regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, granting

(C) regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted

(D) regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted

(E) regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted



This is a parallelism question so we are looking for mandate, require, and grant to have the same tense.
A)mandated, required and it granted-not parallel because of it in front of granted
B) mandated, required, granting- not parallel as granting is not the same tense as mandated and required
C) mandated, required, it granted-not parallel because of it in front of granted and that is not necessary after cyclists
D) mandating, requiring, granted- not parallel and that is not necessary after cyclists
E) mandating, requiring, granting- parallelism is correct in this sentence.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2018, 04:43
daagh wrote:
Important aspects of list ll ism to decide here are: 1. How many series are there? 2. What is the primary aspect of each series and what are the auxiliary phenomena?

Mind you, they all are not equal elements; here in this case, the regulation is the primacy purpose of the ordinance. The other things are incidental to the primer purpose. The various lists of the primary purpose are required to be parallel within them.

Here in the given case, we can tackle ll ism in three ways.

1. A New York ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycle, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granting pedestrians right of way. (This choice is not there.


2. A New York ordinance of 1897, regulating the use of bicycle, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted pedestrians right of way( The OA)

3., Regulating the use of bicycle, a New York ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted pedestrians right of way( This is also not there)

Amidst these various choices, let’s remember that the –ing - form of regulate i.e. ‘regulating’ in the context is a present participle and not a main verb form of the present progressive. To become present progressive, you do have to use the auxiliary verb ‘is” before the ‘ing’ form. Regulating is neither a gerund here.

The same word manifests different meanings in different contexts and each has its own legitimate purpose.

A is wrong because it treats as if the ordinance had four different but equal purposes.



How about "E"sir, why "comma" is used before and? Comma and is used to connect two IC's right. I understand here it is not the case. Correct me if I am wrong.

Thanks,
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2018, 15:28
Hello.

I have a doubt and will appreciate any input:

Q1 In Option C, D and E: Who is the verb-ing modifier modifying? In case it is modifying "ordinance" then does that mean that it's allowed in GMAT for the verb-ing to modify a slightly far away entity when used without a comma.

Q2 Also does the noun modifier rule applies to verb-ing modifier here. The rule is that a noun modifier can modify a little far away noun if the information immediately before the modifier cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence.

appreciate the input and thanks a lot.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2018, 22:26
egmat sayantanc2k chetan2u

I agree that E is the least worst.

I have a doubt.
Ordinance did X Y and Z.
Now "granted " according to me is the result of the ordinance. When the ordinance passed few things were put into effect and the result was that the pedestrians got space.

Now according to egmat if something is the result then it should be in the VERB-ING form.

Additionally doesn't choice E make the verbs of New York parallel to Each other and in that makes the three verbs independent?

Plz explain mikemcgarry

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda &nbs [#permalink] 01 Sep 2018, 22:26

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