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A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2016, 12:55
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rs1 wrote:
In (E), is a comma between 'bicycles' and 'mandated' required? Per the rules that I have learnt, NOUN + NO COMMA + PAST PARTICIPLE = omitted relative pronoun and verb 'be' e.g. 'which had' or similar. Bicycles didn't mandate anything. Hence, I eliminated (E).

Am I confusing 'mandated' between a past participle with past simple tense?

Thanks


A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulating the use of bicycles mandated...., required......, and granted...........

Subject: A New York City ordinance of 1897
Verb: mandated, required, granted (3 parallel verbs in simple past tense)
Modifier for the subject: regulating the use of bicycles

We do not need a comma before "regulating", since this present participle modifier is an essential (or restrictive) modifier - it defines the ordinance - there could be many City ordinances in 1897; the modifier specifies which of those ordinances is discussed here.

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2016, 06:35
But shouldn't it be
1. was regulating
or 2. regulated.

being the whole thing happened in past.


blueseas wrote:
AMITAGARWAL2 wrote:
I think it is easy... A

B Use of granting made it a modifier which is incorrect.

C, D and E - A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulating ... , and makes it is a indpendent clause for which there is not verb.


Hi amit,

OA : E

A. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
not parallel.
you can't have just "mandated" in parallel to "IT granted".
Finally, "regulated the use of bicycles" SHOULD NOT be parallel to the other elements, because the ideas aren't parallel. (all the other ideas in the list are subsumed under "regulated the use of bicycles".)


B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all
times, granting
you can't have a list without "and" in front of the final element.
as in (a), "regulated the use of bicycles" SHOULD NOT be parallel to the other elements, because the ideas aren't parallel. (all the other ideas in the list are subsumed under "regulated the use of bicycles".)


C. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars
at all times, and it granted
not parallel.
you can't have just "mandated" in parallel to "IT granted"
.


D. regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
not a sentence. you can't use "-ing" forms as verbs.
also, "granted" is not parallel to the "-ing" forms anyway.


E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all
times, and granted
correct.
note that "regulating the use of bicycles" is NOT parallel to the other items. this is the way the sentence should be written.

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2016, 21:27
To solve this, we need to understand the meaning of the sentence first.
the law about regulating the use of bicycles mandated X.......required y, and granted Z.... (we need to make sure that these 3 things are parallel)

Correct Option: E

it is very easy to start looking into the parallelism error without understanding the meaning and mark option A as the correct answer.
Therefore, always make sure that you understand the meaning of the sentence before looking for other errors.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2016, 23:31
prabhakar09 wrote:
But shouldn't it be
1. was regulating
or 2. regulated.

being the whole thing happened in past.

Hi Prabhakar, participles (both present and past participles) don't have tense of their own. They derive their tense from the main verb. For example:

I see a crying bay.
- Present Participle crying; the sentence is in simple present tense (as indicated by the main verb see).

I see a crying bay.
- Present Participle crying; the sentence is in simple past tense (as indicated by the main verb saw).
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2016, 01:14
nakib77 wrote:
Q23:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted pedestrians right-of-way.
A. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, granting
C. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
D. regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted


Regulated vs regulating

Regulated is a verb, while regulating in a gerund.
In the context of this sentence ...

A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles is an independent clause on its own. It should have either been followed by a ';' or a connecting conjunction. Since none of this is there, we need to put a gerund, which essentially turns it into a modifier.

So A and B are out

C:

" mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted"

two errors :
correction could be: required that cyclists keep feet...
saying required cyclists that..... implies the regulation needs particular types of cyclists
Also using pronoun it breaks the parallelism

D is not parallel

E is the correct answer
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2016, 01:18
I have only one concern with e ,why bare form of verb is not been used with required,isnt last part of sentence is subjunctive

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2016, 13:10
vipulgoel wrote:
I have only one concern with e ,why bare form of verb is not been used with required,isnt last part of sentence is subjunctive

Posted from my mobile device


No, it is not a subjunctive. The following structures are valid:

1. Required that + subjunctive (Required that cyclists keep...)
2. Required to (Required cyclists to keep)

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2016, 12:51
nakib77 wrote:
Q23:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted pedestrians right-of-way.

A. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, granting
ordinance regulated, mandated,required, granting --- we need AND for a list.
C. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
D. regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
not parallel. if all ING forms are parallel then AND should be used. complete messed up sentence.
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 01:16
Thanks...
you just cleared my doubt on verb-ing /Verb-ed Modifiers ...



prasi55 wrote:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 ...

E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and
granted

Why is a comma required before "regulating?" Without a comma, regulating naturally refers to the previous noun, i.e. to ordinance.
The absence of the comma assures the correct meaning: "the X ordinance (where X = that regulated the use of bicycles) mandated P, required Q, and granted R."

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 01:20
This was an excellent explanation on Verb-ed / Verd-ing..

Thanks..
egmat wrote:
kinjiGC wrote:
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and
granted

What I can understand is "A New York City ordinance " did the following three things
1) mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour
2) required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times
3) and granted pedestrians right-of-way.

There by regulating the use of bicycles.

I was looking for a option as below:
A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way, regulating the use of bicycles.

or

Regulating the use of bicycles,A New York City ordinance of 1897 mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour,required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times and granted pedestrians right-of-way

So the verb-ing modifier modifies the whole clause.

But with option E) regulating being a verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun or noun entity which is "A New York City ordinance of 1897". I was actually looking for a comma separating the modifier from the subject.

Can somebody please clarify the doubt. Somehow I am not comfortable with the sentence structure (I have to, the official answer is E)


Dear Kinjal,

Thank you for posting your question here.

Here is the sentence structure of the correct version of this sentence:

• A New York City ordinance of 1897 (subject)
regulating the use of bicycles (verb-ing modifier that gives additional information about the ordinance)
mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, (mandated = verb 1)
required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, (required = verb 2)
• and granted pedestrians right-of-way. (granted = verb 3)


Your understanding of the three parallel items on the list is perfectly fine. As you pointed out, "regulating" as a verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun, since there is no comma between the modifier and the noun. "Regulating" correctly modifies "ordinance" in option E. Remember that modifiers can 'jump over' other modifiers. Here, "requiring" can jump over "of 1897" to modify the preceding noun.

If I were to identify the main point of the sentence or to summarize the sentence, I would say that this sentence is about the ordinance. It tells us three things about the ordinance: it (1) mandated something, (2) required something and (3) granted something. Notice that the modifier beginning with "regulating" can be removed from the sentence without affecting the clause in any way. This is what modifiers about nouns do: they give you additional information about the noun.

You may wonder whether the status of "regulating" as a modifier can be identified by doing a meaning analysis of the original sentence. It can if you pay close attention to the intended meaning of the sentence. In the original incorrect version, "regulated" seems to be on par with the verbs "mandated," "required" and "granted". However, this is only a superficial parallel list. This can be identified by focusing on the meaning. "Regulated the use of bicycles" gives us the general information that the ordinance imposed some rules on the use of bicycles. The next three verbs actually give us three specific rules about the use of bicycles that were imposed by the ordinance. So, logically, these three items can't be on par with the general information about what the ordinance was about.

I hope this helps with your doubt!

Regards,
Meghna

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2017, 04:18
This question is a subtle mixture of a Parallelism error and Meaning
We can start by asking two questions:
What was the purpose of the New York City Ordinance? To regulate the use of bicycles.
How did it regulate the use of bicycles? - mandated......., required......
The third question will be. " What did it achieve by doing this?It granted pedestrians right- of- way.
Hence the 3 items of the list are: regulated, mandated and granted
A. Mandated, required and it granted...usage of the pronoun ‘it’ before granted is unnecessary and creates a Parallelism error.-INCORRECT
B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, granting ... granting is not parallel to the other two items of the list and is not a verb form; this option changes the intended meaning of the sentence...the last item in a list should be preceded by the co-ordinating conjunction, "AND"- INCORRECT
C. mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists : Usage of the pronoun 'it' creates a parallelism error… INCORRECT
D. Mandating, requiring are not active verb forms.........AWKWARD STRUCTURE, VERBS MISSING, CHANGES the intended meaning of the sentence. INCORRECT
E. Correct Answer: The modifying phrase, regulating the use of bicycles correctly modifies the Noun, Ordinance............mandated, required and granted- Parallelism maIntained: all the three actions are in the Simple Past Tense, 'And' is correctly used before the last item of the list.

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2017, 02:15
A. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, granting
C. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted
D. regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2017, 11:10
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2017, 19:20
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for the kind attention of Mike

Quote:
E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted


I have a doubt to ask Mike. Normally we use a verb to denote the primary function and modifiers to describe the secondary functions or the results or impact of the primary function. In this correct choice E, on the contrary, the prime function of regulation is relegated to a modifier role while the details or description of the regulation is accorded the verb status. Also if I take it right, the granting the right - of way - is a separate function for the regulation of the use of bicycles, since the right - of - way is in reference not only to the use of bicycles but also to the use of all vehicles such as cars, trucks, scooters, buses and so on that ply on the road. Therefore, it is logical to expect the second verb in the list to parallel another verb that goes with the primary function and not with the modifiers.
Would the following be a better choice?
E. regulated the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour and requiring cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted

Of course, in the exam, one can take no other choice but E because, per se, E is the only structurally parallel choice in the topic. Also one has to agree with the OA because if is from GMAT Prep
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2017, 05:19
E.
Regulating is a present participle in this case.
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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2017, 07:50
Why is a comma between bicycles and mandated not required?

regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted

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Re: A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, manda   [#permalink] 29 Aug 2017, 07:50

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