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# A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2013, 05:45

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2014, 10:30
dentobizz wrote:

Can you please explain this. how did we get 13 and 14 sessions as explained in the previous explanations. there are only 12 weeks and 1 session per week

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2014, 10:47
As for me.....

Selection of the correct answer in this case, due to figurative analysis , was difficult- but the balance 4 answers being definitely incorrect made this a prospect answer....

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2014, 10:27
I sort of get why D is the OA. But isn't the statement open-ended? "more than" seems a little broad. Someone please tell me what I'm missing.

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2014, 14:05
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Abdul29 wrote:
I sort of get why D is the OA. But isn't the statement open-ended? "more than" seems a little broad. Someone please tell me what I'm missing.

It is a must be true question.

Fact 1: Everyone attended at least 12 concerts
Fact 2: There are 20 people who attended the least number of concerts = 12 concerts
Fact 3: There are 10 people who attended the greatest number of concerts

Now, how many concerts these 10 people have attended ? [possible numbers: 14, 15, 16...].
It cannot be 13, because between top 10 and bottom 20, we have a middle group (the left out 170).

So we can say, at least 10 people attended 14 or more concerts.

The option says more than 6 people, which fits to at least 10 people zone.

Hope it is clear.
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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2014, 14:18
ConnectTheDots wrote:
Abdul29 wrote:
I sort of get why D is the OA. But isn't the statement open-ended? "more than" seems a little broad. Someone please tell me what I'm missing.

It is a must be true question.

Fact 1: Everyone attended at least 12 concerts
Fact 2: There are 20 people who attended the least number of concerts = 12 concerts
Fact 3: There are 10 people who attended the greatest number of concerts

Now, how many concerts these 10 people have attended ? [possible numbers: 14, 15, 16...].
It cannot be 13, because between top 10 and bottom 20, we have a middle group (the left out 170).

So we can say, at least 10 people attended 14 or more concerts.

The option says more than 6 people, which fits to at least 10 people zone.

Hope it is clear.

+Kudos.

I took the "more than" to an extreme level, I must say. Clear as mud, cheers.

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2014, 08:29
1. A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions.
2. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester.
3. All of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives.
4. Most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels.MAY NOT BE TRUE ...SEE 4.
B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result
of concert attendance.IRRELEVANT... JUST TALK OF STRESS LEVELS
C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults.YOUNG ADULTS WERE NOT CONSIDERED IN THE STUDY BUT UNDERGRADUATES
D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.CORRECT....20 STUDENTS ATTENDED 12 HOURS OF CONCERT...IE MINIMUM...( SEE POINT 2 ABOVE) .....BALANCE 180 ATTENDED MORE THAN 12 HOURS OF THE CONCERT....IE 13, 14 .....OR MORE.....10 ATTENDED MAXIMUM NUMBER OF HOURS..... THIS MAXIMUM CANNOT BE 13 HOURS AS OTHER WISE HOW MANY HOURS WOULD THE BALANCE 170 HAVE ATTENDED ?HENCE THOSE WHO ATTENDED 14 OR MORE HOURS HAVE TO BE AT LEAST 10 IE THE MAX ONES.......SO AS TO MAKE SPACE FOR THE BALANCE 170 TO OCCUPY 13 HOURS OF CONCERT
E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.WHY ONE ATTENDED THE CONCERT IS NOT IMPORTANT.....

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2014, 09:23
its (D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. Our facts have proved that there are at least three levels of concert goers: fewest (20 students), greatest (10 students) and "the rest" (170 students). The fewest attended at least 12 concerts (by definition of the study); thus, "the rest" must have attended at least 13 concerts and "the greatest" must have attended at least 14 concerts. Since "the greatest" includes 10 students, it is true that More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2015, 23:07
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A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

a) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels.

b) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance.

c) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults.

d) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.

e) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.
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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2015, 01:44
Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester

Minimum 12 hours. (20 participant)
Above minimum be 13 hrs (Middle range remaining 170)
And Max would be more than 13. Lets say 14 hrs. (Top 10)

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2015, 10:04
Hi JarvisR,

One question,

Are we wrong in assuming that all the Maximum no of corcerts is 13.

The fewest concerts become 12.

JarvisR wrote:
Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester

Minimum 12 hours. (20 participant)
Above minimum be 13 hrs (Middle range remaining 170)
And Max would be more than 13. Lets say 14 hrs. (Top 10)

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2015, 15:06
A - wrong coz we know nothing about 170 participants
B - attractive, but I guess I gotta think about the fact that the time of the concerts could easily not coincide with the time during which students do academic works, right? Thus wrong
C - nothing about majority, young adults is abit ambiguous aswell. Wrong
D - ok so minimum is 12 concerts during 12 weeks, 20 people attended those. Rest attended 13+ but there were those who attended the most. Since we are dealing with integers I assume 13+ will be the amount of concerts that 170 people attended and 14+ will be the amount of concerts that 10 students attended. 10 > 6 so its sort of true without a hitch. Correct!
E - seems irrelevant, incorrect

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2015, 19:46
shriramvelamuri wrote:
Hi JarvisR,

One question,

Are we wrong in assuming that all the Maximum no of corcerts is 13.

The fewest concerts become 12.

JarvisR wrote:
Each of the200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester

Minimum 12 hours. (20 participant)
Above minimum be 13 hrs (Middle range remaining 170)
And Max would be more than 13. Lets say 14 hrs. (Top 10)

>> Answer 2 ur question would be yes. Not sure if i can add anything extra from previous reply , but will try.

I re-quote the premise.

Look at the colored and bolded words. Hope this clears ur doubt now...

1. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester.

At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state.

2.Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives.

3.Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

>>2 categories (greatest and fewest) and # of students in each categories is already mentioned. So remaining students (170) would fall in middle.
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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2015, 19:50
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Fact #1: Each of the 200 participants attended "at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week" over the 12 week semester. Thus, each participant, at a minimum, viewed 12 concerts (or 24 hours of concert time, since each concert was two hours long).

Fact #2: Ten students attended "the greatest number of concerts." Thus, these students must have attended more than the minimum 12 concerts.

Fact #3: The 10 students from fact #2 reported "lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives." However, we are not offered a comparison group, so we don't know with whom these students are being compared.

Fact #4: Twenty students attended the "fewest number of concerts." This indicates that there must be at least three levels of concert goers: "Fewest" = 20 students (fact #4), "Greatest" = 10 students (fact #2), and "the rest" = 170 students (fact #1)

Fact #5: Most of the 20 students from fact #4 reported "below-average levels of emotional comfort." However, we don't know how many "most" equals, and we aren't certain whether "emotional comfort" is equivalent to "lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives."

Now, let's look at the answers

(A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels. We have no information about "most of the 200 participants." All we know (from fact #3) is that the ten students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported "lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives."

(B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result of concert attendance. No information about academic work is offered in the argument.

(C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of young adults. This is a typical GMAT "attractive distractor" (i.e. an incorrect answer choice the test makers intentionally make attractive.) However, this answer has several faults. First, we have no idea how the "majority" of our concert-goers reacted to the study; we are only given minimal information about 30 of the concert-goers. If we can't even make claims about the majority of concert-goers in the study, how can we make claims about "the majority of young adults." Second, all of our concert-goers in the study listened to classical music for "at least 2 hours per week" (at least for the duration of the study). From those participants that we know about, some reported negative emotional states and some reported postive emotional states. This contradicts the contention that listening to classical music "for at least 2 hours per week" improves emotional well-being.

There are several other problems with this answer, but I want to address this specific answer type more broadly. In general, the GMAT likes to provide a CORRELATION in a text and then claim CAUSATION in an answer choice. This is extremely common on inference/draw a conclusion critical reasoning arguments, and the causal answer choices are almost always incorrect. If you choose an answer choice that claims causation, you MUST be able to prove this causation from the text of the argument.

(D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. Our facts have proved that there are at least three levels of concert goers: fewest (20 students), greatest (10 students) and "the rest" (170 students). The fewest attended at least 12 concerts (by definition of the study); thus, "the rest" must have attended at least 13 concerts and "the greatest" must have attended at least 14 concerts. Since "the greatest" includes 10 students, it is true that More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment.

(E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts. We are given no information over the motivations of the students.
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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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12 May 2015, 14:12
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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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12 May 2015, 18:07
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Just my 2 ¢ - When in time crunch on the exam, never discount the most convoluted option. Also, POE is your best friend. Here is how -

A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels. - For sure, the passage doesn't say so. Eliminate!

B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result
of concert attendance. - We don't know. Again, the passage doesn't say so. Eliminate!

C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of
young adults. - Improved for 10 folks for sure, 10 out of 200 not a majority. Eliminate!

D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. - I don't know what the hell is this. Hold now.

E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts. - Absurd and out of scope. Eliminate!

By POE Hit D and move forward.

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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13 May 2015, 07:48
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A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects of music on human emotions. Each of the 200 participants attended at least 1 two-hour concert of classical music per week over the course of 12 weeks of their spring semester. At the end of the experiment, all of the students filled out a questionnaire assessing their emotional state. Based on the results of the questionnaires, all of the 10 students who attended the greatest number of concerts reported lower stress levels and higher satisfaction with their lives. Also, most of the 20 students who attended the fewest number of concerts reported below-average levels of emotional comfort.

Which of the following must be true based on the evidence presented above?

A) Most of the 200 participants improved their emotional state and lowered their stress levels. cannot be inferred
B) During each week of the experiment, the participants spent at least 2 hours less on their academic work as a result
of concert attendance.no information to support this
C) Listening to classical music for at least 2 hours per week improves the emotional well-being of the majority of
D) More than 6 participants attended at least 14 concerts during the course of the experiment. It's stated that the 10 students who attended the fewest number, in this case more than 12 concerts (1 concert x 12 weeks), reported the beneficial effect of music.
E) At least some of the students participated in the study in order to gain free access to classical concerts.no information to support this

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2015, 07:13
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2016, 10:24
KapTeacherEli wrote:
mandyrhtdm wrote:
now figured it out.
All attended atleast 12 concerts . as all attended atleast one concert per week.
so bottom 20 attended 12 concerts each. ( at least )
middle 170 have to attend atleast 1 more than the least number that is 12 and one less than the highest number. That is they attended 13 atleast.
top 10 has to attend atleast one more that the middle 170 that is they attended atleast 14 ..
Hence more that 6 people attended atleast 14 concers

Well explained, mandyrhtdm!

Inference problems--characterized by language in the question stem like "based on the evidence presented above"--ask you to accept the information in the stimulus as fact, and draw conclusions from it. When the facts are abstract or complex, it can be very difficult to predict an answer. But when there are numbers in the stem, it's often the case that the correct answer presents itself to a little mathematical reasoning!

Here, because we have "20" attending the "fewest" number of concerts, and "10 attending the "most" number of concerts, we have to have the remaining 170 somewhere in the middle. And since the fewest possible number of concerts is 12, the middle 170 must have each attended at least 13 concerts--and, accordingly, the remaining 10 have each attended an absolute floor of 14 concerts. (D) is correct.

For the record: (A) isn't supported--we have information on 30 out of 200, so there is no way we can support a "most" claim. (B) is out of scope; we don't know where the hours come from, not to mention that it's possible students are studying at the concerts! (C) also goes may beyond the scope of the stimulus. Finally, (E) speculates baselessly on the motivation of students. This is a reasonable supposition, but it's not actually based on anything in the text!

Best of luck studying!

Regards,

I used the POE to get the correct answer.

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects [#permalink]

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Re: A recent research study of undergraduate students analyzed the effects   [#permalink] 21 May 2016, 00:12

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