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# A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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Manager
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2013, 03:46
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Difficulty:

25% (medium)

Question Stats:

60% (01:48) correct 40% (00:52) wrong based on 540 sessions

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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

This question is based on parallel comparison. As per my understanding below should be correct parallel structures. Please, let me know your views.

1. 'have elected to retire early rather than to face'.. I eliminated option(E), because 'to' is not present.
2. 'have elected retiring early than facing'
3. 'had elected early retirement rather than...' How could we match this parallel structure ?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2013, 04:13
1
KUDOS
Hi umesh..

(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

here to is common to both:
have elected to
retire early rather than
face

OR
have elected to retire early rather than [optional to] face

Best Regards,
Mansoor

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2013, 04:24
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Tip : Usage of "Rather than" means preference of one over another and Usage of "instead of" means replacing one thing with another.Moreover instead of can only be used in case of Noun and verbs or actions so in below only

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face --- no two actions are there so usage of had not correct.
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing --- Out instead of is used
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing --- to retire not parallel with facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face --- correct construction.

had to think between A and E which one is better got confused went with the gut feeling more then logical approach
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2013, 12:13
I am not sure it is correct to remove to when it is common. I have not seen similar elimination of optional word anywhere.
have elected to retire early rather than face

Can anyone answer my last doubt. How can I make parallel structure with below line in regard to this question?
'had elected early retirement rather than...
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2014, 08:43
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2016, 22:23
umeshpatil wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

This question is based on parallel comparison. As per my understanding below should be correct parallel structures. Please, let me know your views.

1. 'have elected to retire early rather than to face'.. I eliminated option(E), because 'to' is not present.
2. 'have elected retiring early than facing'
3. 'had elected early retirement rather than...' How could we match this parallel structure ?

in GMAT sentence correction "rather than" is preferred over "instead of".
'have' has to be used rather than 'had'
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2016, 09:43
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit
Manager
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2016, 10:36
aim730 wrote:
Tip : Usage of "Rather than" means preference of one over another and Usage of "instead of" means replacing one thing with another.Moreover instead of can only be used in case of Noun and verbs or actions so in below only

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face --- no two actions are there so usage of had not correct.
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing --- Out instead of is used
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing --- to retire not parallel with facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face --- correct construction.

had to think between A and E which one is better got confused went with the gut feeling more then logical approach

rather than is preferred over instead of here. (instead of means replacement) past perfect should not be used as there is no need of setting a chronological order between events.
rather than face goes with the rising costs. (verbs to be parallel) Hence E
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2016, 11:20
umeshpatil wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

This question is based on parallel comparison. As per my understanding below should be correct parallel structures. Please, let me know your views.

1. 'have elected to retire early rather than to face'.. I eliminated option(E), because 'to' is not present.
2. 'have elected retiring early than facing'
3. 'had elected early retirement rather than...' How could we match this parallel structure ?

There is a difference in use of rather and instead.

Rather is used to show preference, one choice over the other. If the main choice has "to" infinitive then following rather, there is no need of "to" and normal inifitive is used.

Example: i want to invest in stocks rather than real estate.

"Instead" is used to replace one choice with another choice. it is always followed by "of"

Example : i want icecream instead of cereals. completely replacing a noun,action
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 13:41
Expert's post
1
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Celestial09 wrote:
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit

"Instead of" can be used only for nouns; "rather than" can be used for nouns or verbs. Here "retiring" and "facing" are gerunds (i.e. nouns), and hence both "instead of" and "rather than" are acceptable.

The problem with C is the incorrect idiom elect + gerund (verb-ing) . The correct idiom is elect + infinitive (to -verb).
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 22:47
sayantanc2k wrote:
Celestial09 wrote:
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit

"Instead of" can be used only for nouns; "rather than" can be used for nouns or verbs. Here "retiring" and "facing" are gerunds (i.e. nouns), and hence both "instead of" and "rather than" are acceptable.

The problem with C is the incorrect idiom elect + gerund (verb-ing) . The correct idiom is elect + infinitive (to -verb).

Can we mark E on the grounds that since phrase after "rather than" marks present tense so the verb should be in simple form?

Construction for Present Tense:

would rather <verb in simple form> than <verb in simple form>
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2016, 04:33
warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Celestial09 wrote:
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit

"Instead of" can be used only for nouns; "rather than" can be used for nouns or verbs. Here "retiring" and "facing" are gerunds (i.e. nouns), and hence both "instead of" and "rather than" are acceptable.

The problem with C is the incorrect idiom elect + gerund (verb-ing) . The correct idiom is elect + infinitive (to -verb).

Can we mark E on the grounds that since phrase after "rather than" marks present tense so the verb should be in simple form?

Construction for Present Tense:

would rather <verb in simple form> than <verb in simple form>

I am not sure what you mean by simple form - do you mean simple present?
Please note that in option E, the parallelism is between two infinitives (not between two verbs in simple present tense): to retire and to face - it is alright to omit "to" in the second element. ...to retire rather than to face....
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2016, 09:49
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

I could zero down to option E, but now I am a little confused about the last part of the sentence....
Quote:
and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
... this needs to be parallel to
Quote:
to retire early rather than face
...... how is rising costs parallel here...what am I missing?
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2016, 10:08
Hi avaneeshvyas, parallelism is all about the intended meaning. Hopefully it is clear that many Doctors have elected to <X> over <Y>. So, <X> and <Y> are the two parallel elements.

<X> = retire early
<Y> = face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

Here's the thing. While X and Y need to be parallel, there is another level of parallelism going on within Y:

face <Y1> and <Y2>.

<Y1> = the threats of lawsuits
<Y2> = the rising costs of malpractice insurance

To summarize, there are two different parallel structures here:

i) <X> needs to be parallel to <Y> (and that's indeed the case: retire and face)

ii) <Y1> needs to be parallel to <Y2> (again, that's the case: the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance are both Noun phrases)

Hopefully it is now clear that the rising costs of malpractice insurance does not need to be parallel to to retire early, simply because these two are part of different parallel structures.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2016, 10:52
EducationAisle wrote:
Hi avaneeshvyas, parallelism is all about the intended meaning. Hopefully it is clear that many Doctors have elected to <X> over <Y>. So, <X> and <Y> are the two parallel elements.

<X> = retire early
<Y> = face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

Here's the thing. While X and Y need to be parallel, there is another level of parallelism going on within Y:

face <Y1> and <Y2>.

<Y1> = the threats of lawsuits
<Y2> = the rising costs of malpractice insurance

To summarize, there are two different parallel structures here:

i) <X> needs to be parallel to <Y> (and that's indeed the case: retire and face)

ii) <Y1> needs to be parallel to <Y2> (again, that's the case: the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance are both Noun phrases)

Hopefully it is now clear that the rising costs of malpractice insurance does not need to be parallel to to retire early, simply because these two are part of different parallel structures.

Thanks for the clarification...it makes sense now that you have explained. But what is the catch here......how do I avoid making the same mistake again....what is it that I need to observe to understand that the question stem has two parallel structures and then two structures within one of them..... I had taken it on the face value and thought that there were three things that needed to be in parallel
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2016, 22:05
There is no catch. As I mentioned in my post earlier, understanding the meaning is the key.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses meaning based parallelism, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Sentence Correction Nirvana available at Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com

A recent study has found that within the past few years,   [#permalink] 19 Dec 2016, 22:05
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