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A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jan 2011, 11:29
In C
"Retiring" is not parallel with "of facing"
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Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2011, 12:30

'RECENT study HAS found' .. so 'had' is out

elected to RETIRE... rather than FACE

so E .... HTH

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Re: parallel structure [#permalink]

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New post 17 Mar 2011, 03:11
Sc is checking ||ism
Have>had
Elected to retire||elected to face
Retire||face
E remains

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Re: parallel structure [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2011, 06:28
'recent study' suggests that we should use 'have'.
rather than is used for presence.
between D & E. E is parallel.
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Re: OG Verbal Review SC #39 Retiring Doctors [#permalink]

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Quote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

a. had elected early retirement rather than face
b. had elected early retirement instead of facing
c. have elected retiring early instead of facing
d. have elected to retire early rather than facing
e. have elected to retire early rather than face



Answer: E
Subject-verb agreement - 'doctors have' not 'doctors had'. 'had elected' is past perfect tense used only to refer to a non-continuous action in the past, which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place. --> eliminate A and B
Parallelism - 'elected to retire...rather than face...' --> eliminate C and D

------

*Note:
1. Present Perfect Tense
- used to express actions which have already been completed, or perfected, at the time of speaking or writing.
- uses has or have + the past participle; the present perfect continuous tense uses has or have + been (the past participle of BE) + the - ing form of the main verb.
- e.g. I have done the work.
She has answered half the questions.

2. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
- used to express continuous, ongoing actions which have already been completed at the time of speaking or writing.
- e.g. The bus has been waiting for one hour.

3. The Past Perfect tense

- used to refer to a non-continuous action in the past, which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place.
- e.g. She had heard the news before I saw her.
I had finished my work by the time the clock struck twelve.

4. Past-perfect continuous tense

- used to refer to a continuous, ongoing action in the past which was already completed by the time another action in the past took place.
- e.g. I had been waiting for two months by the time I received the reply.
He had been thinking about his friends shortly before they called.



Type of Tense

Simple
- actions occurring at regular intervals
- general truths, or situations existing for a period of time
- non-continuous actions

Continuous
- continuous, ongoing actions

Perfect
- non-continuous actions completed before a certain time

Perfect Continuous
- continuous, ongoing actions completed before a certain time
Attachments

File comment: Summary of Tenses
Screen shot 2011-09-09 at AM 02.02.38.png
Screen shot 2011-09-09 at AM 02.02.38.png [ 50.57 KiB | Viewed 3894 times ]


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Re: Verb tense problem [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2012, 09:10
could some one explain why you think the action in this sentence is continuing to the present? The first part of the sentence is "recent study has found that within the past few years".

Since the study is confined to the few years in the past, does it make sense to say had decided. Because there actions (doctor's decisions) occurred in a period before the study was conducted?

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Re: Verb tense problem [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2012, 07:04
Within can be used in the following ways:
as a preposition (followed by a noun): Can you complete the work within a month?
as an adverb (without a following noun): As Helen approached the front door, she could hear a telephone ringing within.

Inside a period of time
a.
before the end of a period of time
We expect an announcement within the next 24 hours.
The military government has promised to hold free and fair elections within six months.
Thesaurus entry for this meaning of within
b.
during a particular period of time
Within the past few weeks, 215 people have been arrested.
Within living memory these mountains were the home of the brown bear.
Thesaurus entry for this meaning of within
c.
used for saying how soon one thing happens after another
We arrived within two minutes of each other.
Seventy per cent of patients die within a year of becoming infected with the virus.

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2012, 19:45
Maulikgmat wrote:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
24. e 25.B

24. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

Hi,

I am confused between (D) & (E), could anyone please explain?

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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cyberjadugar wrote:
Hi,

I am confused between (D) & (E), could anyone please explain?

Regards,


Hi there,

This is the sentence with choice D:

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected to retire early rather than facing the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

The original sentence means that according to a recent study, in the last few years many doctors have chosen to do X rather than Y. Here, X and Y should be parallel. Per this choice (D),
X = to retire early
Y = facing the threats of…
These two entities are not parallel because X is “to verb” while Y is written in verb-ing form. Hence, we have parallelism error in this sentence.

Choice E corrects this error. This is the sentence with choice E:

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected to retire early rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

X = to retire early
Y = (to) face the threats of…
The two entities are parallel here, and hence choice E is the correct answer.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 08:08
redferrocene wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

The correct answer is E.


Strike 1=> Verb tense: present perfect fits (has found) so, A,B out
Strike 2=> Meaning => instead of (substitution-wrong) , rather than (preference, right) c out
Strike 3 => Parallelism => to retire rather than facing - wrong => D out
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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Sachin9 wrote:


1) When do we know that 'to' and be understood and can be omitted?
I eliminated E because I thought 2 structures are not parallel because you dont have a 'to' before face

2) What is wrong with C :shock:
retiring and facing are parallel.


Hi Sachin,

Whenever we have a list, the common items in the first entity of the list may not be repeated before all the entities in the list. OG questions are inundated with such parallel construction. For example the first question of OGV2:

Like ants, termites have an elaborate social structure in which a few individuals reproduce and the rest serve the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, building the nest, or battling intruders.

This is the sentence with correct answer choice E. Notice the entities in the sub-list. Termites serve the colony by:
a. tending juveniles,
b. gathering food,
c. building the nest, or
d. battling intruders.

In the sentence, only the first entity is preceded by “by”. It is understood before other entities. This is a very common structure. Here comes the need to identify the correct entities that are intended to make the correct intended parallel list. Try out this official question:

The computer software being designed for a project studying Native American access to higher education will not only meet the needs of that study, but also has the versatility and power of facilitating similar research endeavors.

(A) but also has the versatility and power of facilitating
(B) but also have the versatility and power to facilitate
C) but it also has the versatility and power to facilitate
(D) and also have the versatility and power of facilitating
(E) and it also has such versatility and power that it can facilitate

Now let’s analyze, why choice C is incorrect.

C) have elected retiring early instead of facing: Notice the use of “elected” here. The way it has been used in this choice and the original sentence as well, it seems to suggest that the doctors have cast their votes for an entity named “retiring” instead of another entity “facing”. This is the incorrect use of the word. The intended meaning is that they have elected to – chose to – do one thing rather than the other. This incorrect use of “elected” makes this choice incorrect.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years [#permalink]

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Tip : Usage of "Rather than" means preference of one over another and Usage of "instead of" means replacing one thing with another.Moreover instead of can only be used in case of Noun and verbs or actions so in below only

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face --- no two actions are there so usage of had not correct.
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing --- out instead of is used
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing --- Out instead of is used
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing --- to retire not parallel with facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face --- correct construction.

had to think between A and E which one is better got confused went with the gut feeling more then logical approach
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2013, 04:14
The disscussion here should help you
http://www.beatthegmat.com/og-verbal-re ... 73222.html

for more information on rather than vs instead of
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/rat ... t1177.html
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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What is the difference between C and E i.e. 'instead of' and rather than?

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face

had is not correct

(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing

had is not correct

(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing

"have elected retiring" does not sound right to me, also there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing"

(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing

there is incorrect parallelism of "have elected" and "facing"

(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

correct. parallelism of elected and face is also correct, hence the OA.


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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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ziyavutdinov wrote:
What is the difference between C and E i.e. 'instead of' and rather than?


This might help:

1. http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/instead-of-vs-rather-than-t7242.html
2. http://gmatclub.com/forum/instead-of-vs-rather-than-vs-oppose-to-104503.html
3. http://gmatclub.com/forum/instead-of-vs-rather-than-102935.html
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2013, 01:12
I have solved this question using following concepts mentioned in MGMAT SC:

1. Chapter 9 : Idioms.
It says following structures are allowed for "elect":
1. Elected early withdrawal.
or 2. Elected to withdraw ( so this one is provided in option in D and E with correct verb tense "have").

2. Chapter 11 (Parallelism: Concrete noun and action nouns extra)
Where book tells us about the acceptable type of parallelism among concrete nouns, action nouns, simple gerund noun and complex gerund noun.
Book says:
1. We can only make concrete nouns parallel with concrete nouns.
2. Action nouns parallel with - action nouns or complex gerund nouns. ( that is the case in option E. FACE and The RISING)
3. Simple gerund nouns parallel to only simple gerund nouns.

Thus option E is the best option as per SC rules.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2013, 20:31
Sentence is in the present tense the non underlined portion so he underline portion has to be in the present tense too .

Doctors is the subject of the sentence hence "have" is the verb .
C,D,E are in the race .

Rather than is a parallel marker hence
X rather than Y

"To retire rather than to face" .. would have to be the underlined part ..

Since to can be omitted "To retire than face" is correct hence E is the answer ..

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2013, 07:17
Lets have a discussion over it:

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

A and B are out because of Had,
D does not follow parallelism, so out
Choice between C and E.

Both of them are parallel , so what exactly is wrong in C ?
Is it because of instead of and rather than?

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2014, 20:08
Within past few years means something started in past and still continuing in present.
When elected can be replaced by opted or is used as in the sense of opted then use to verb to show purpose.
Students elected him as head boy. (correct)
He elected improvement. (wrong: he did not vote for the improvement he opted for it so use to verb form).
He elected to improve. (correct)
Here since correct for is to elect so to maintain || structure we need to face.
In B and C || im is correct but we need to so whole sentence is wrong.
So choice E is correct also in E
To face || :
1. the threats of lawsuits
2. The rising costs

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years,   [#permalink] 17 Feb 2014, 20:08

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