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A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2017, 02:25
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YangYichen wrote:
could you please elaborate on 'Once outside or Twice Inside" rule?

Sure.

As per this rule, we can have either "to both X and Y" or "both to X and to Y".

Notice, in the first one I kept to outside once and this would be used for both X and Y while in the second one, I used to with both X and Y. Hence, in the letter part we have Twice Inside.

Here are the great questions that work on the same principle.

https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-para ... ce-inside/
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2017, 09:18
him1985 wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face- singular verb
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing - parallelism
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing - To Retire and to face must be parallel
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

let's concentrate only on D and E as there explanation in this thread is enough for eliminating A, B and C.

first ask yourself what are the two options doctors have ?

these two options are (1) early retirement and (2) face threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

here we are are considering face threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance. as the second option. we should not consider face threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance as two separate options. these two are part of the second option for the doctors.

now let's see which answer choice is correct. keep in mind two main options for doctors should be parallel.

D. to retire rather than facing ( not at all parallel) -- incorrect
E. to retire rather than (to) face (parallel) -- correct
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2017, 09:51
Please suggest why C is incorrect

I am confused between C & E. I think both have parallel structures.
C : have elected <verb> instead of <verb>
E : have elected to <verb> than <verb>

Thanks,
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2017, 17:21
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
->Use of past perfect is incorrect.
->same as A
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
X instead of Y ; X & Y must be parallel , have elected & facing are not parallel . Incorrect
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
same as C
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face
Correct

Experts pls. comment
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2017, 19:55
redferrocene wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler: OE
OG Verbal Review 2, SC#39

Verb form; Parallelism

For action that started in the past and continues into the present, it is correct to use the present perfect tense: have elected. When a choice is presented using the rather than construction-the doctors ha'ue chosen x rather than y-the x and the y must be parallel. In this case, the doctors have chosen to retire rather than (to understood) face. To does not need to be repeated in order to maintain parallelism because it is understood.

(A) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; early retirement is not parallel to face.
(B) Had elected shows an action completed in the past; retirement and facing are not parallel.
(C) Have elected must be followed by an infinitive (to retire).
(D) Facing and to retire early are not parallel.
(E) Correct. In this sentence, have elected shows action continuing into the present; to retire and (to understood) face are parallel.

We have to use have because the sentence is in present perfect tense as the effects are still going or we are taking about the event still.
Also the rather than is better in this context than instead of
elect to retire early is correct .
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2017, 22:19
Elected Retiring is wrong.
Correct idiom is X elected to do Y.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2017, 14:55
daagh wrote:
The verb setting of the main clause (‘has found’) is in present perfect. To avoid shift of tense, one has to maintain present perfect in the subordinate clause also. hence A and B are out. Among C, D and E, C is out because of using instead of. Rather than is the right choice because rather than shows contrast, while instead of just meaning ‘in the place of’ does not effuse contrast.

In D, to retire ….. than facing is not parallel. E is the best choice. To retire, an infinitive, matches face, elliptically meaning to face

Dear daagh your explanation makes myself confused about the timing of the events, as you can only study the retirements that have alredy happended, the structure of the timing shift (IMO) should be similiar to the reported speech, as you point "have found" is in the present, but the timing of the retirments is in the past few years, so the timing should point an action that alredy happended.... so if the answer choices allowed only "retired" (past) would that be preferable to "have retired" (inmediate past)?

Kind Regards
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2018, 06:46
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face - past perfect had elected is incorrect
(B) had elected early retirement instead of facing - same as A
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing - instead of is used to show a preference
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing - to retire is not parallel to facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face - Correct

If in option A, had elected is changed to have elected, then we have
(A)' have elected early retirement rather than face -- is there a parallelism error here?
why can't the parallel structures be - many doctors have elected early retirement
rather than face -- in this case have elected and face are both verbs and can't they be parallel?

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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2018, 22:31
Skywalker18 wrote:
If in option A, had elected is changed to have elected, then we have
(A)' have elected early retirement rather than face -- is there a parallelism error here?
why can't the parallel structures be - many doctors have elected early retirement
rather than face -- in this case have elected and face are both verbs and can't they be parallel?

Face is not a (full) verb. It's an infinitive. It's slightly hard to see that because the to in to face has been assumed away, leaving only face.

In other words, in the correct option, it is to retire and (to) face that are parallel.
have elected to retire early rather than face
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years,   [#permalink] 04 Feb 2018, 22:31

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